Open Access

Prevalence and genetic characteristics of Salmonella in free-living birds in Poland

  • Marta Krawiec1,
  • Maciej Kuczkowski1,
  • Andrzej Grzegorz Kruszewicz2 and
  • Alina Wieliczko1Email author
BMC Veterinary Research201511:15

https://doi.org/10.1186/s12917-015-0332-x

Received: 14 August 2014

Accepted: 22 January 2015

Published: 31 January 2015

Abstract

Background

Salmonella species are widespread in the environment, and occur in cattle, pigs, and birds, including poultry and free-living birds. In this study, we determined the occurrence of Salmonella in different wild bird species in Poland, focusing on five Salmonella serovars monitored in poultry by the European Union: Salmonella serovars Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Infantis, Virchow, and Hadar. We characterized their phenotypic and genetic variations.

Isolates were classified into species and subspecies of the genus Salmonella with a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. The prevalence of selected virulence genes (spvB, spiA, pagC, cdtB, msgA, invA, sipB, prgA, spaN, orgA, tolC, ironN, sitC, ipfC, sifA, sopB, and pefA) among the isolated strains was determined. We categorized all the Salmonella ser. Typhimurium strains with enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR.

Results

Sixty-four Salmonella isolates were collected from 235 cloacal swabs, 699 fecal samples, and 66 tissue samples (6.4% of 1000 samples) taken from 40 different species of wild birds in Poland between September 2011 and August 2013. The largest numbers of isolates were collected from Eurasian siskin and greenfinch: 33.3% positive samples for both. The collected strains belonged to one of three Salmonella subspecies: enterica (81.25%), salamae (17.19%), or houtenae (1.56%). Eighteen strains belonged to Salmonella ser. Typhimurium (28.13%), one to ser. Infantis (1.56%), one to ser. Virchow (1.56%), and one to ser. Hadar (1.56%). All isolates contained spiA, msgA, invA, lpfC, and sifA genes; 94.45% of isolates also contained sitC and sopB genes. None of the Salmonella ser. Typhimurium strains contained the cdtB gene. The one Salmonella ser. Hadar strain contained all the tested genes, except spvB and pefA; the one Salmonella ser. Infantis strain contained all the tested genes, except tspvB, pefA, and cdtB; and the one Salmonella ser. Virchow strain contained all the tested genes, except spvB, pefA, cdtB, and tolC.

The Salmonella ser. Typhimurium strains varied across the same host species, but similarity was observed among strains isolated from the same environment (e.g., the same bird feeder or the same lake).

Conclusions

Our results confirm that some wild avian species are reservoirs for Salmonella serotypes, especially Salmonella ser. Typhimurium.

Keywords

Free-living birds Salmonella spp Poland Virulence genes ERIC-PCR

Background

Salmonella species are widespread in nature, and occur as pathogenic bacteria in the intestines of domestic and wild animals, including birds. Cases of suspected bird-to-human transmission of Salmonella have been reported [1]. Most identified Salmonella serovars have been Salmonella enterica and almost all are able to cause illness in humans and animals [2]. The most frequently reported serotypes causing human salmonellosis in the European Union (EU) are S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar (ser.) Enteritidis and S. enterica subsp. enterica ser. Typhimurium [3]. Because of the suspected high correlation between salmonellosis in poultry and the number of human infections, Directive 2003/99/EC of the European Parliament and Council requires that the following five serotypes of Salmonella be monitored in poultry flocks: Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Virchow, Hadar, and Infantis. Some strains of Salmonella ser. Typhimurium have been identified as host adapted and a cause of salmonellosis in pigeons [4] and passerines [5]. Infections with different serotypes of Salmonella have also been documented in gulls, crows, vultures, and parrots [6,7]. Salmonella is an environmentally persistent pathogen that can survive and proliferate in diverse environments, including in animals that form part of the human food chain [8]. The molecular characterization of Salmonella serovars isolated from poultry, food, and the environment has been reported (e.g., virulence genes and the homology of strains) [9-12]. In contrast, there are few reports of the characterization of strains isolated from wild birds throughout the world. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize Salmonella strains from selected free-living bird species in Poland.

Methods

During the period from September 2011 to August 2013, 1000 samples were collected: 235 cloacal swabs from four species of aquatic wild birds, and 699 fecal samples and 66 tissue samples from 36 different species of free-living birds (Table 1). Birds found dead and feces were collected by ornithologists from live and dead individuals in six different regions of Poland during the following bird-ringing seasons:
Table 1

Salmonella isolates obtained from free-living birds

No.

Origin

Type of material

Total amount of tested individuals

Positive samples

(%)

Environmental data */**

1

Mallard duck Anas platyrhynchos

cloacal swabs

121 (d)

8 (6,61)

1/ A

2

Great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo

cloacal swab

77 (d)

8 (10,39)

1/A

3

Velvet scoter Melanitta fusca

cloacal swab

30 (d)

0 (0,00)

7/A

4

Black coot Fulica atra

cloacal swab

7 (d)

0 (0,00)

1/B

5

Mute swan Cygnus olor

feces

27 (a)

0 (0,00)

1,2/A

6

Whooper swan Cygnus cygnus

feces

6 (a)

0 (0,00)

1,2/A

7

Great tit Parus major

feces/tissue

109 (92a/17d)

10 (9,17)

3,4,5,6/B

8

Blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus

feces/tissue

43 (36a/7d)

1(2,32)

3,4,5,6/ C

9

Eurasian tree sparrow Passer montanus

feces/tissue

53 (48a/5d)

2 (3,77)

3,4,5,6/C

10

Redpoll Carduelis cabaret

feces

57 (a)

1(1,75)

6/ A

11

Eurasian siskin Carduelis spinus

feces/tissue

48 (39a/9d)

16 (33,3)

3,4,5,6/ A

12

Common chiffchaff Phylloscopus collybita

feces

45 (a)

0 (0,00)

5,6/A

13

Bluethroat Luscinia svecica

feces

43 (a)

0 (0,00)

3,4,5,6 /A

14

European robin Erithacus rubecula

feces

36 (a)

0 (0,00)

5,6/ A

15

Common reed bunting Emberiza schoeniclus

feces

35 (a)

0 (0,00)

3,4,5,6/

16

Eurasian blackcap Sylvia atricapilla

feces

35 (a)

0 (0,00)

3,4,5,6/B

17

Greenfinch Carduelis chloris

feces/tissue

30 (20a/10d)

10 (33,3)

3,4,5,6/C some populations A

18

Pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca

feces

19 (a)

0 (0,00)

6/ A

19

Hedge sparrow Prunella modularis

feces

17 (a)

0 (0,00)

5,6/ B

20

Barn swallow Hirundo rustica

feces

17 (a)

0 (0,00)

3,4,5,6/A

21

Common starling Sturnus vulgaris

feces/tissue

16 (13a/3d)

3 (18,75)

3,4,5,6

22

Eurasian reed warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus

feces

15 (a)

0 (0,0)

5,6/A

23

Fieldfare Turdus pilaris

feces

13(a)

0 (0,0)

5,6/A

24

Yellow wagtail Motacilla flava

feces

13 (a)

0 (0,0)

3,4,5,6/ A

25

Blackbird Turdus melura

feces/tissue

11 (10a/1d)

1 (9,09)

3,4,5,6/B

26

Common chaffinch Fringilla coelebs

feces

9(a)

0 (0,00)

3,4,5,6/B

27

Whitethroat Sylvia borin

feces

9 (a)

0 (0,00)

5,6/A

28

Yellow- hammer Emberiza citrinella

feces

7 (a)

0 (0,00)

3,4,5,6/B

29

Lesser whitethroat Sylvia curruca

feces

7 (a)

0 (0,00)

5,6/A

30

Long-tailed tits Aegithalos caudatus

feces

6 (a)

0 (0,00)

6/B

31

Hooded crow Corvus cornix

tissue

6 (d)

0 (0,00)

2/B

32

Rook Corvus frugilegus

feces/tissue

6 (3a/3d)

1 (16,66)

2/A

33

Common wood pigeon Columba palumbus

feces/tissue

6 (2a/4d)

1 (16,67)

2/A

34

Common swift Apus apus

feces/tissue

5 (4a/1d)

1 (20,00)

3,4,5,6/A

35

Willow worbler Phylloscopus trochilus

feces

5(a)

0 (0,00)

6/A

36

Willow tit Poecile montanus

feces

5 (a)

0 (0,00)

3,4,5,6/ B

37

Eurasian marsh harrier Circus aeruginosus

feces

1(a)

1 (100,00)

8/A

38

Sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus

feces

1(a)

0 (0,00)

8/B

39

Common buzzard Buteo buteo

feces

1 (a)

0 (0,00)

9/B

40

Golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos

feces

3(a)

0 (0,00)

9/C

d, dead individuals; a, alive individuals;

The boldfaces indicate the species of birds with the highest amount (percent) of positive samples.

*Locations of sample collection:

1. Lakes of the Lower Silesia region (southern Poland).

2. Parks of Wrocław (southern Poland).

3. Bird feeders in Wrocław city center (southern Poland).

4. Bird feeders in the suburbs of Wrocław (southern Poland).

5. Rakutowskie Lake of Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship (middle Poland).

6. Sudetic Mountains (southern Poland).

7. Baltic coast (northern Poland).

8. Wildlife rescue center in Lower Silesia (southern Poland).

9. Wildlife rescue center in Greater Poland (middle Poland).

**Lifestyles of birds: A, migratory bird; B, partially migratory bird; C, resident.

  • winter and early spring in the Wrocław city center, suburbs, and parks, the ponds in the Lower Silesia region, the Baltic coast, and two wildlife rescue centers;

  • summer and early autumn in the Rakutowskie Lake of Kuyavian–Pomeranian Voivodeship (northern Poland) and in the Sudetic Mountains (southern Poland).

The ornithologists ringed the birds with the consent of the General Directorate of Environmental Protection, Poland (nos. 253/2012 and 259/2013).

Cloacal swabs from mallard ducks and black coots were obtained during the hunting season by two hunting associations in accordance with local hunting laws, special permission (with the consent of the Regional Directorate of Environmental Protection, Wrocław, Poland, no. WPN. 6205.67.2012.MK.1), and hunting programs. Samples from great cormorants were obtained during the annual population cull in Poland. All cloacal swabs from mallards, black coots, and great cormorants were collected in the lakes of the Lower Silesia region between August 15, 2012, and December 12, 2012. Cloacal swabs were collected from velvet scoters that were found dead in fishing nets on the Baltic coast in late winter and early spring.

The species of birds were grouped by their preferred habitats and/or behavior and were divided into waterfowl, songbirds, and birds kept in rescue centers, as well as migratory, partially migratory, or resident species (Table 1). The research was conducted with the consent of the 2nd Local Ethical Committee for Animal Experiments (Wrocław, Poland; no. 41/2011).

Bacterial isolation

All the samples were analyzed for Salmonella strains, which were isolated using the International Organization for Standardization Procedure PN-EN ISO 6579: 2003/A1: 2007. The samples were pre-enriched in nonselective buffered peptone water (Merck, Darmstadt, Germany) for 20 h at 37°C. After incubation, enriched modified semisolid Rappaport–Vassiliadis medium (Merck) was inoculated with the samples and incubated for 24 h at 41.5°C. The cultures were differentiated on solid xylose–lysine–deoxycholate agar (Merck) and on MacConkey agar (Merck), incubated for 24 h at 37°C. Three colonies per plate with the characteristics of Salmonella spp. were then spread onto nutrient agar (Merck) and incubated for 24 h at 37°C. The colonies were then identified biochemically with the API 20E system (Biomerieux, Marcy l’Etoile, France). All isolates were stored in Microbank vials (Microbank, Pro-Lab Diagnostics, Round Rock, TX, USA) at −70°C for further analysis.

DNA extraction

After the cells were incubated overnight at 37°C on nutrient agar (Merck), the bacterial genomic DNA was extracted using the DNeasy® Blood & Tissue Kit (Qiagen, Valencia, CA, USA), according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The DNA was quantified spectrophotometrically (BioPhotometer, Eppendorf, Wesseling-Berzdorf, Germany) and stored at −20°C.

Salmonella identification with PCR

The genus Salmonella was confirmed with multiplex PCR. Salmonella was identified at the genus level with the invA gene and at the subspecies level with the same multiplex PCR. The primer sequences used for amplification are summarized in Table 2. Salmonella was identified at the genus and subspecies levels according to Lee et al. [13].
Table 2

Primers used in PCR to identify species and subspecies of Salmonella strains, according to Lee et al. [13]

Genes

Function of gene

Sequence of nucleotides

Size

STM

encodes a putative inner membrane protein, specific for S. enterica subsp I

F-GGTGGCCTCGATGATTCCCG

137 bp

R-CCCACTTGTAGCGAGCGCCG

stn

encodes Salmonella enterotoxin and is specific for S. enterica

F-CGATCCCTTTCCCGCTATC

179 bp

R-GGCGAATGAGACGCTTAAG

invA

invasion protein, for simultaneous identification of Salmonella at the genus level

F-ACAGTGCTCGTTTACGACCTGAAT

244 bp

R-AGACGACTGGTACTGATCGATAAT

gatD

encodes the galacitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase (gatD), contributes to acid production from galacitol

F-GGCGCCATTATTATCCTATTAC

501 bp

R-CATTTCCCGGCTATTACAGGTAT

mdcA

encodes the alpha subunit of the enzyme that contributes to malonate utilization

F-GGATGTACTCTTCCATCCCCAGT

728 bp

R-CGTAGCGAGCATCTGGATATCTTT

fljB

encodes phase 2 flagellin, enables differentiation between monophasic and diphasic subspecies

F-GACTCCATCCAGGCTGAAATCAC

848 bp

R-CGGCTTTGCTGGCATTGTAG

Salmonella serotyping

Salmonella isolates were serotyped using single-factor antisera (Sifin, Berlin, Germany), according to the White–Kauffman–Le Minor scheme, focusing particularly on the five serovars mentioned above, which are monitored in poultry by the EU.

Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR

The genetic diversity of the isolated Salmonella ser. Typhimurium strains was analyzed with ERIC-PCR, using a protocol and primers (ERIC-R: 5′-ATGTAAGCTCCTGGGGATTCAC-3′; ERIC-F: 5′-AAGTAAGTGACTGGGGTGAGCG-3′) targeting the palindromic sequences of ERIC with the method described by Versalovic et al. [14].

PCR detection of virulence genes

The virulence genotyping of Salmonella ser. Typhimurium (18 strains), Salmonella ser. Hadar (one strain), Salmonella ser. Virchow (one strain), and Salmonella ser. Infantis (one strain) was performed with the multiplex PCR described by Skyberg et al. [9]. The primers used in this experiment are listed in Table 3.
Table 3

Primers used in PCR to detect the virulence genes in Salmonella strains, according to Skyberg et al. [9]

Genes

Function of gene

Sequence of nucleotides

Size

spvB

Growth within host

F-CTATCAGCCCCGCACGGAGAGCAGTTTTTA

717 bp

R-GGAGGAGGCGGTGGCGGTGGCATCATA

spiA

Survival within macrophage

F-CCAGGGGTCGTTAGTGTATTGCGTGAGATG

550 bp

R-CGCGTAACAAAGAACCCGTAGTGATGGATT

pagC

Survival within macrophage

F-CGCCTTTTCCGTGGGGTATGC

454 bp

R-GAAGCCGTTTATTTTTGTAGAGGAGATGTT

cdtB

Host recognition/invasion

F-ACAACTGTCGCATCTCGCCCCGTCATT

268 bp

R-CAATTTGCGTGGGTTCTGTAGGTGCGAGT

msgA

Survival within macrophage

F-GCCAGGCGCACGCGAAATCATCC

189 bp

R-GCGACCAGCCACATATCAGCCTCTTCAAAC

invA

Host recognition/invasion

F-CTGGCGGTGGGTTTTGTTGTCTTCTCTATT

1070 bp

R-AGTTTCTCCCCCTCTTCATGCGTTACCC

sipB

Entry into nonphagocytic cells

F-GGACGCCGCCCGGGAAAAACTCTC

875 bp

R-ACACTCCCGTCGCCGCCTTCACAA

prgH

Host recognition/invasion

F-GCCCGAGCAGCCTGAGAAGTTAGAAA

756 bp

R-TGAAATGAGCGCCCCTTGAGCCAGTC

span

Entry into nonphagocytic cells

F-AAAAGCCGTGGAATCCGTTAGTGAAGT

504 bp

R-CAGCGCTGGGGATTACCGTTTTG

orgA

Host recognition/invasion

F-TTTTTGGCAATGCATCAGGGAACA

255 bp

R-GGCGAAAGCGGGGACGGTATT

tolC

Host recognition/invasion

F-TACCCAGGCGCAAAAAGAGGCTATC

161 bp

R-CCGCGTTATCCAGGTTGTTGC

iron

Iron acquisition

F-ACTGGCACGGCTCGCTGTCGCTCTAT

1205 bp

R-CGCTTTACCGCCGTTCTGCCACTGC

sitC

Iron acquisition

F-CAGTATATGCTCAACGCGATGTGGGTCTCC

768 bp

R-CGGGGCGAAAATAAAGGCTGTGATGAAC

lpfC

Host recognition/invasion

F-GCCCCGCCTGAAGCCTGTGTTGC

641 bp

R-AGGTCGCCGCTGTTTGAGGTTGGATA

sifA

Filamentous structure formation

F-TTTGCCGAACGCGCCCCCACACG

449 bp

R-GTTGCCTTTTCTTGCGCTTTCCACCCATCT

sopB

Host recognition/invasion

F-CGGACCGGCCAGCAACAAAACAAGAAGAAG

220 bp

R-TAGTGATGCCCGTTATGCGTGAGTGTATT

pefA

Host recognition/invasion

F-GCGCCGCTCAGCCGAACCAG

157 bp

R-GCAGCAGAAGCCCAGGAAACAGTG

Positive controls

Two strains, Salmonella ser. Typhimurium (ATCC # 14028) and Salmonella ser. Hadar (laboratory strain), previously shown to contain all the genes tested (Salmonella species, subspecies and virulence genes), served as positive control strains. Identity of Salmonella ser. Hadar strain was verified by sequencing.

Results

Isolation and identification

Salmonella species were isolated from 64 (6.4%) of the 1000 samples collected (Tables 1 and 4). Most of the positive samples came from the Eurasian siskin (Carduelis spinus) (16/48, 33.33%) and the greenfinch (Carduelis chloris; 10/30, 33.33%). Positive samples were also collected from 13 other species, including the great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo; 8/77, 10.39%), great tit (Parus major; 10/109, 9.17%), and mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos; 8/121, 6.61%). A positive sample was also obtained from a Eurasian marsh harrier (Circus aeruginosus; 1/1, 100.00%). This last sample was collected from the bird during its second day at a wildlife rescue center in Lower Silesia before antibiotic treatment was commenced (Table 1).
Table 4

Species, subspecies, and serotypes of Salmonella isolates collected

Species

Subspecies

Serotype

Origin

Number of isolates

Salmonella enterica

enterica (I)

Typhimurium 4,12:i:1,2

Eurasian siskin

7

Greenfinch

3

Mallard duck

3

Redpoll

1

Common wood pigeon

1

Blue tit

1

Great tit

1

Blackbird

1

Infantis 6,7:r:1,5

Common starling

1

Virchow 6,7:r:1,2

Common starling

1

Hadar 6,8:z10:e,n,x

Mallard duck

1

others

Eurasian siskin

8

Great cormorant

7

Mallard duck

4

Common starling

1

Greenfinch

7

Great tit

1

Rook

1

Eurasian marsh harrier

1

Eurasian tree sparrow

1

salamae (II)

others

Eurasian tree sparrow

1

Great cormorant

1

Great tit

8

Common swift

1

houtenae (IV)

others

Mallard duck

1

The collected Salmonella strains all belonged to one of three subspecies: enterica (81.25%), salamae (17.19%), or houtenae (1.56%). S. enterica subsp. enterica was isolated from the vast majority of bird species, but S. enterica subsp. salamae was collected from four species of birds (Eurasian tree sparrow, great cormorant, great tit, and common swift). Only one strain, isolated from a mallard duck, was S. enterica subsp. houtenae (Table 4).

Among the Salmonella strains collected, four of the five serovars of Salmonella that are constantly monitored by the EU in poultry were found in free-living birds. Eighteen strains belonged to ser. Typhimurium (28.13%), one to ser. Infantis (1.56%), one to ser. Virchow (1.56%), and one to ser. Hadar (1.56%). No Salmonella ser. Enteritidis was isolated from any sample collected from free-living birds. Serovars Virchow and Infantis were isolated from two very young starlings. Serovar Hadar was isolated from the mallard duck. Serovar Typhimurium was the serovar isolated from the greatest number of bird species (Table 4).

ERIC-PCR categorized the 18 Salmonella ser. Typhimurium strains obtained from free-living birds into different profiles. One strain remained as nonhomologous to any other strain. The Salmonella ser. Typhimurium strains showed no correlation with bird species (e.g., isolates from Eurasian siskin nos. 22, 42, and 16 differed), but similarity was observed among the strains isolated from the same environmental areas (strain nos. 60, 12, 2, 18, and 37 were similar). The first cluster included strains collected in two regions: Wrocław city center and suburbs. The Salmonella ser. Typhimurium isolates collected from dead birds also displayed genetic diversity (Figure 1).
Figure 1

The ERIC-PCR analysis and virulence genes of Salmonella serovars: Typhimurium, Hadar, Infantis, and Virchow. Black indicates the presence of the gene, white indicates the absence of the gene, boldfaces in text indicate that the strain was isolated from dead bird; explanation of environmental numbers, see legend of Table 1.

All the isolated Salmonella ser. Typhimurium strains contained the spiA, msgA, invA, lpfC, and sifA genes; 94.45% isolates also contained the sitC and sopB genes. None of the Salmonella ser. Typhimurium strains contained the cdtB gene. The presence of other genes was investigated. The genes in the Salmonella ser. Typhimurium strains were highly variable. The one Salmonella ser. Hadar strain contained all the tested genes, except spvB and pefA; the one Salmonella ser. Infantis strain contained all the tested genes, except spvB, pefA, and cdtB; and the one Salmonella ser. Virchow contained all the tested genes, except spvB, pefA, cdtB, and tolC. The prevalence of virulence genes in the Salmonella ser. Typhimurium strains varied among the live and dead free-living birds (Figure 1).

Discussion

The results of this study confirm that Salmonella ser. Typhimurium, one of the most frequently reported serotypes in human salmonellosis in the EU, occurs among free-living birds. Three other serotypes monitored in poultry flocks by the EU, Hadar, Virchow, and Infantis, were also present among the free-living bird populations. Free-living birds are considered to be potential carriers of these bacteria and to play a role in the ecology and circulation of several zoonotic pathogens [4-7].

In Central Europe, only a few reports of salmonellosis in wild birds have been published, in the 1990s [7,15]. In Poland, all similar research has been conducted in the small northern region of the country, and there is a dearth of wide epidemiological studies in this field [16,17].

Salmonella infection may occur as a visible illness or be asymptomatic, depending upon the bird species. It may also result from exposure to an environment that has been contaminated by infected humans or livestock [15,18,19]. Migratory birds, in particular, are potential reservoirs for bacterial agents [20]. Many wild passerines have been documented as carriers of Salmonella strains, and their involvement in the transmission of Salmonella to mammals and people has been suggested [21,22]. In this study, most of the positive samples came from garden bird species: Eurasian siskins and greenfinches. These results are compatible with the findings of Hughes et al. [23], who reported that Salmonella caused mortality in wild birds, particularly garden birds, in the United Kingdom. Lawson et al. [24] also reported that house sparrows and greenfinches are particularly susceptible to salmonellosis. Consistent with our results, it has also been documented that the Salmonella serovar most commonly isolated from free-living birds is ser. Typhimurium, which appears to be adapted to some avian species that frequent bird feeders, including songbirds [25]. The results of the present study clearly show that the bird species with the highest proportion of Salmonella-positive samples also frequented bird feeders. Both European siskins and greenfinches seem to be particularly susceptible to Salmonella ser. Typhimurium. This result suggests a high incidence of Salmonella exposure near bird feeders during winter and its transmission to birds. It can be inferred that the risk of transmission from the feces of infected wild passerines to uninfected birds is high, especially in urban areas with many bird feeders. As reported by Hamer et al. [25] and later noted by Borreli et al. [26], the key features of the urban environment that promote the transmission of pathogens include increased host contact rates, susceptibility to infection, high rates of pathogen introduction, pollution and stress (which reduce the host immune function), and warmer microclimates with reduced seasonality (which allow the environmental persistence of some pathogens). These factors may explain the increased frequency of salmonellosis we observed in birds between February and April during a prolonged winter in Poland in 2013 (data not shown in the table). In the United Kingdom, Hughes et al. [23] reported similar peaks of Salmonella isolation in January and February. Kapperud et al. [18] documented the seasonality of salmonellosis outbreaks, simultaneously in people and wild passerines, in Norway in 1998, which appeared in both groups between January and April. It is also possible that salmonellosis outbreaks in free-living birds during this time of year are associated with the feeding of birds by people. Supplemental feeding creates high densities of birds, high concentrations of feces, and stress arising from social interactions, which may also increase the prevalence of some bacterial species among wild birds [25]. It has been suggested that certain strains of Salmonella ser. Typhimurium are associated with different groups of wild birds [19,23,27-30]. This is supported by the recovery of this serotype from mallard ducks and great cormorants in this study.

Daoust and Prescott [31] reported that salmonellosis can cause sporadic mortality, particularly among birds around feeders, but also in young birds in large breeding colonies. These results prompted us to check the prevalence of selected virulence genes (encoding virulence factors) that are also capable of causing human infections [9,10,12]. In this study, we have demonstrated the great variability in the virulence genes present in isolated Salmonella strains in both dead and live birds, and among birds of the same species.

Similar results for the prevalence of virulence genes have been reported by other researchers. Skyberg et al. [9] recorded that the same 17 virulence genes were widespread in many Salmonella serovars isolated from both sick and healthy birds. Similar findings were recorded by Mezal et al. [11] among environmental samples, including dust, water, and other materials from poultry houses. Our study confirms the presence of the same virulence genes, which might play important roles in the bacterial invasion and survival in the host of Salmonella isolates collected from different species of free-living birds, as in human clinical isolates. These findings suggest that like poultry flocks, poultry houses, and the environments around poultry farms, wild birds might be a source of Salmonella strains that are pathogenic to people. We also found evidence that the genetic homogeneity of some Salmonella serovars (e.g., ser. Typhimurium) is changeable, but is greater among different species of birds that spend their lives in similar geographical localities. Chrząstek et al. [32] also demonstrated a correlation between genetic homogeneity and the geographical origin of the host, but with Pasteurella multocida strains collected from poultry in different regions in Poland. Our results confirm the genetic similarity of Salmonella ser. Typhimurium strains isolated from wild birds in the area of Wrocław.

Conclusions

Salmonella species are present in populations of free-living bird species, especially in birds sampled in urbanized areas. Some wild avian species are reservoirs for Salmonella serotypes, especially Salmonella ser. Typhimurium Most of the positive samples came from the Eurasian siskin and the greenfinch. The Salmonella isolates presented the same virulence genes as in human clinical isolates. This suggests a potential risk for people feeding infected wild birds.

Availability of supporting data

The study was conducted with the special consent mentioned in the text above (see Methods). All dead birds (except game birds) were found already dead and brought to the clinic. Game birds were hunted and collected by hunters in accordance with local hunting laws. Samples of great cormorants were obtained during the annual population cull in Poland, in accordance with the annual specifications of the Regional Directorate of Environmental Protection.

Declarations

Acknowledgments

This research project was financed by the National Centre for Research and Development, project number no. 12 0126 10.

The authors are grateful to Anna Woźniak (PhD) for help with the microbiological analyses, Anna Aksamit (PhD) of the Reference Laboratory for Salmonella (Agro-Vet, Wrocław, Poland) for Salmonella serotyping, and to ornithologist Stanisław Rusiecki, the Odra Wrocław Bird-Ringing Group, the Sudetic Bird-Ringing Group, and the organizers of the Rakutowskie ornithological camp, for their help with collecting the samples.

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Department of Epizootiology and Clinic of Bird and Exotic Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences
(2)
Warsaw Zoological Garden

References

  1. Alley MR, Connolly JH, Fenwick SG, Mackereth GF, Leyland MJ, Rogers LE, et al. An epidemic of salmonellosis caused by Salmonella Typhimurium DT 160 in wild birds and humans in New Zealand. N Z Vet J. 2002;50:170–6.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  2. Guibourdenche M, Roggentin P, Mikoleit M, Fields PI, Bockemühl J, Grimont PA, et al. Supplement 2003–2007 (no. 47) to the White-Kauffmann-Le Minor scheme. Res Microbiol. 2010;161:26–9.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  3. EFSA, ECDC, The European Union summary report on trend and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents and footborne outbreaks in 2011. EFSA J. 2013;11:3129–379.Google Scholar
  4. Pasmans F, Van Immersel F, Heyndrickx M, Martel A, Godard C, Wildemauwe C, et al. Host adaptation of pigeon isolates of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium variant Copenhagen phage type 99 is associated with enhanced macrophage cytotoxicity. Infect Immunol. 2003;71:6068–74.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  5. Lawson B, Howard T, Kirkwood JK, Macgregor SK, Perkins M, Robinson RA, et al. Epidemiology of salmonellosis in garden birds in England and Wales, 1993-2003. Ecohealth. 2012;7:294–306.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  6. Tizard IR, Fish RA, Harmeson J. Free flying sparrows as carriers of salmonellosis. Can Vet J. 1979;20:143–4.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Hubalek Z, Sixl W, Mikulaskova M. Salmonellosis in gulls and other free-living birds in Czech Republic. Cent Eur J Public Health. 1995;3:21–4.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  8. Winfield MD, Groisman EA. Role of Nonhost environments in the lifestyles of Salmonella and Escherichia coli. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2003;69:3687–94.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  9. Skyberg JA, Logue CM, Nolan LK. Virulence genotyping of Salmonella spp. with multiplex PCR. Avian Dis. 2006;50:77–81.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  10. Mezal EH, Stefanova R, Khan AA. Isolation and molecular characterization of Salmonella enterica serovar Javiana from food, environmental and clinical samples. Int J Food Microbiol. 2013;164:113–8.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  11. Mezal EH, Sabol A, Khan A, Ali N, Stefanova R, Khan AA. Isolation and molecular characterization of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis from poultry house and clinical samples during 2010. Food Microbiol. 2014;38:67–74.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  12. Akiyama T, Khan AA, Cheng CM, Stefanova R. Molecular characterization of Salmonella enterica serovar Saintpaul isolated from imported seafood, pepper, environmental and clinical samples. Food Microbiol. 2011;28:1124–8.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  13. Lee K, Iwata T, Shimizu M, Taniguchi T, Nakadai A, Hirota Y, et al. A novel multiplex PCR assay for Salmonella subspecies identification. J Appl Microbiol. 2009;107:805–11.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  14. Versalovic J, Koeuth T, Lupski JR. Distribution of repetitive DNA sequences in eubacteria and application of fingerprinting of bacterial genomes. Nucleic Acids Res. 1991;19:6823–33.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  15. Cizek A, Literak I, Hejlicek K, Treml F, Smola J. Salmonella contamination of the environment and its incidence in wild birds. Zentralbl Veterinarmed B. 1994;41:320–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Zaleski S, Jakubowska L. Occurrence of Salmonella in feces of wild birds in Poland. Przegl Epidemiol. 1976;30:511–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Stenzel T, Tykałowski B, Mazur-Lech B, Koncicki A. Infections in wildlife birds-results of serologcal screening. Bull Vet Inst Pulavy. 2008;52:63–6.Google Scholar
  18. Kapperud G, Stenwig H, Lassen J. Epidemiology of Salmonella Typhimurium 0:4-12 Infection in Norway. Evidence of Transmission from an Avian Widlife Reservoir. Am J Epidemiol. 1998;147:774–82.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  19. Horton RA, Wu G, Speed K, Kidd S, Davies R, Coldham NG, et al. Wild birds carry similar Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains to those found in domestic animals and livestock. Res Vet Sci. 2013;95:45–8.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  20. Foti M, Rinaldo D, Guerci A, Giacopello C, Aleo A, De Leo F, et al. Pathogenic microorganisms carried by migratory birds passing through the territory of the island of Ustica, Sicily (Italy). Avian Pathol. 2011;40:405–9.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  21. Morishita TY, Aye PP, Ley EC, Harr BS. Survey of pathogens and blood parasites in free-living passerines. Avian Dis. 1999;43:549–52.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  22. Harris JM. Zoonotic diseases of birds. Vet Clin N Am-Small. 1991;21:1289–98.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  23. Hughes LA, Shopland S, Wigley P, Bradon H, Leatherbarrow H, Williams NJ, et al. Characterisation of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium isolates from wild birds in northern England from 2005-2006. BMC Vet Res. 2008;4:4.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  24. Lawson B, Hughes LA, Peters T, de Pinna E, John SK, Macgregor SK, et al. Pulsed-Field gel electrophoresis supports the presence of host-adapted Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium strains in the British garden bird population. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:8139–44.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  25. Hamer SA, Lehrer E, Magle SB. Wild birds as sentinels for multiple zoonotic pathogens along urban to rural gradient in greater chicago Illinois. Zoonoses Public Health. 2011;59:355–64.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  26. Borrelli L, Fioretti A, Russo TP, Barco L, Raia P, De Luca Bossa LM, et al. First report of Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis in common swifts (Apus Apus). Avian Pathol. 2013;42:323–6.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  27. Refsum T, Heir E, Kapperud G, Vardund T, Holstad G. Molecular epidemiology of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis: comparison of isolates from avian wildlife, domestic animals and the environment in Norway. App Environ Microbiol. 2002;68:5600–6.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  28. Pennycot TW, Park A, Mather HA. Isolation of different serovars of Salmonella enterica from wild birds in Great Britain between 1995 and 2003. Vet Rec. 2006;158:817–20.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  29. Reche MP, Jimenez PA, Alvarez F. Incidence of Salmonellae in captive and wild free-living raptorial birds in central Spain. J Vet Med B. 2003;50:42–4.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  30. Hoque MA, Burgess W, Greenhil AR, Hedlefs R, Skerratt LF. Causes of morbidity and mortality of wild aquatic birds at Billabong Sanctuary, Townsville, North Queensland, Australia. Avian Dis. 2012;56:249–56.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  31. Daoust PY, Prescott JF. Salmonellosis. In: Thomas NJ, Hunter DB, Atkinson CT, editors. Infectious Diseases of Wild Birds. Ames, Iowa: Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 2007. p. 270–88.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  32. Chrząstek K, Kuczkowski M, Wieliczko AK, Bednarek KJ, Wieliczko A. Molecular epidemiologic investigation of Polish avian Pasteurella multocida strains isolated from fowl cholera outbreaks showing restricted geographical and host-specific distribution. Avian Dis. 2012;56:529–36.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar

Copyright

© Krawiec et al.; licensee BioMed Central. 2015

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Advertisement