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Table 1 Salmonella isolates obtained from free-living birds

From: Prevalence and genetic characteristics of Salmonella in free-living birds in Poland

No. Origin Type of material Total amount of tested individuals Positive samples
(%)
Environmental data */**
1 Mallard duck Anas platyrhynchos cloacal swabs 121 (d) 8 (6,61) 1/ A
2 Great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo cloacal swab 77 (d) 8 (10,39) 1/A
3 Velvet scoter Melanitta fusca cloacal swab 30 (d) 0 (0,00) 7/A
4 Black coot Fulica atra cloacal swab 7 (d) 0 (0,00) 1/B
5 Mute swan Cygnus olor feces 27 (a) 0 (0,00) 1,2/A
6 Whooper swan Cygnus cygnus feces 6 (a) 0 (0,00) 1,2/A
7 Great tit Parus major feces/tissue 109 (92a/17d) 10 (9,17) 3,4,5,6/B
8 Blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus feces/tissue 43 (36a/7d) 1(2,32) 3,4,5,6/ C
9 Eurasian tree sparrow Passer montanus feces/tissue 53 (48a/5d) 2 (3,77) 3,4,5,6/C
10 Redpoll Carduelis cabaret feces 57 (a) 1(1,75) 6/ A
11 Eurasian siskin Carduelis spinus feces/tissue 48 (39a/9d) 16 (33,3) 3,4,5,6/ A
12 Common chiffchaff Phylloscopus collybita feces 45 (a) 0 (0,00) 5,6/A
13 Bluethroat Luscinia svecica feces 43 (a) 0 (0,00) 3,4,5,6 /A
14 European robin Erithacus rubecula feces 36 (a) 0 (0,00) 5,6/ A
15 Common reed bunting Emberiza schoeniclus feces 35 (a) 0 (0,00) 3,4,5,6/
16 Eurasian blackcap Sylvia atricapilla feces 35 (a) 0 (0,00) 3,4,5,6/B
17 Greenfinch Carduelis chloris feces/tissue 30 (20a/10d) 10 (33,3) 3,4,5,6/C some populations A
18 Pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca feces 19 (a) 0 (0,00) 6/ A
19 Hedge sparrow Prunella modularis feces 17 (a) 0 (0,00) 5,6/ B
20 Barn swallow Hirundo rustica feces 17 (a) 0 (0,00) 3,4,5,6/A
21 Common starling Sturnus vulgaris feces/tissue 16 (13a/3d) 3 (18,75) 3,4,5,6
22 Eurasian reed warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus feces 15 (a) 0 (0,0) 5,6/A
23 Fieldfare Turdus pilaris feces 13(a) 0 (0,0) 5,6/A
24 Yellow wagtail Motacilla flava feces 13 (a) 0 (0,0) 3,4,5,6/ A
25 Blackbird Turdus melura feces/tissue 11 (10a/1d) 1 (9,09) 3,4,5,6/B
26 Common chaffinch Fringilla coelebs feces 9(a) 0 (0,00) 3,4,5,6/B
27 Whitethroat Sylvia borin feces 9 (a) 0 (0,00) 5,6/A
28 Yellow- hammer Emberiza citrinella feces 7 (a) 0 (0,00) 3,4,5,6/B
29 Lesser whitethroat Sylvia curruca feces 7 (a) 0 (0,00) 5,6/A
30 Long-tailed tits Aegithalos caudatus feces 6 (a) 0 (0,00) 6/B
31 Hooded crow Corvus cornix tissue 6 (d) 0 (0,00) 2/B
32 Rook Corvus frugilegus feces/tissue 6 (3a/3d) 1 (16,66) 2/A
33 Common wood pigeon Columba palumbus feces/tissue 6 (2a/4d) 1 (16,67) 2/A
34 Common swift Apus apus feces/tissue 5 (4a/1d) 1 (20,00) 3,4,5,6/A
35 Willow worbler Phylloscopus trochilus feces 5(a) 0 (0,00) 6/A
36 Willow tit Poecile montanus feces 5 (a) 0 (0,00) 3,4,5,6/ B
37 Eurasian marsh harrier Circus aeruginosus feces 1(a) 1 (100,00) 8/A
38 Sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus feces 1(a) 0 (0,00) 8/B
39 Common buzzard Buteo buteo feces 1 (a) 0 (0,00) 9/B
40 Golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos feces 3(a) 0 (0,00) 9/C
  1. d, dead individuals; a, alive individuals;
  2. The boldfaces indicate the species of birds with the highest amount (percent) of positive samples.
  3. *Locations of sample collection:
  4. 1. Lakes of the Lower Silesia region (southern Poland).
  5. 2. Parks of Wrocław (southern Poland).
  6. 3. Bird feeders in Wrocław city center (southern Poland).
  7. 4. Bird feeders in the suburbs of Wrocław (southern Poland).
  8. 5. Rakutowskie Lake of Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship (middle Poland).
  9. 6. Sudetic Mountains (southern Poland).
  10. 7. Baltic coast (northern Poland).
  11. 8. Wildlife rescue center in Lower Silesia (southern Poland).
  12. 9. Wildlife rescue center in Greater Poland (middle Poland).
  13. **Lifestyles of birds: A, migratory bird; B, partially migratory bird; C, resident.