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  1. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is agent causing hepatitis worldwide. Originally considered to be limited to developing countries, this virus was also detected in developed countries. In recent years an increasing num...

    Authors: Anna Jackova, Katarina Dudasova, Slavomira Salamunova, Rene Mandelik, Jaroslav Novotny and Stefan Vilcek

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:232

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Nucleosomes consist of DNA wrapped around a histone octamer core like thread on a spool to condense DNA as chromatin into chromosomes. Diseases such as cancer or inflammation lead to cell death, chromatin frag...

    Authors: Heather Wilson-Robles, Tasha Miller, Jill Jarvis, Jason Terrell, Theresa Kathleen Kelly, Thomas Bygott and Mhammed Bougoussa

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:231

    Content type: Research

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  3. Spondylitis is an inflammation of the vertebrae that leads to a destructive process with exuberant new bone formation. Osteomyelitis can produce a distortion of the bone architecture, degenerative joint change...

    Authors: Alessandro Vetere, Mara Bertocchi, Igor Pelizzone, Emanuele Moggia, Sebastiano Gerosa and Francesco Di Ianni

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:230

    Content type: Case Report

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  4. Chlorella vulgaris has been proposed as a sustainable green feedstock in poultry nutrition due to its ease of cultivation, minimal environmental impact and balanced nutritional composition. However, the majority ...

    Authors: Diogo Francisco Maurício Coelho, Cristina Maria Riscado Pereira Mateus Alfaia, José Miguel Pestana Assunção, Mónica Costa, Rui Manuel Amaro Pinto, Carlos Mendes Godinho de Andrade Fontes, Madalena M. Lordelo and José António Mestre Prates

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:229

    Content type: Research

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  5. Hepatopathies are an important group of disorders in dogs where proper nutritional care is crucial. Supplementation with a hepatoprotectant like silybin can improve liver function and should not interfere with...

    Authors: Maciej Gogulski, Adam Cieślak, Julia Grabska, Marie Ardois, Małgorzata Pomorska-Mól, Paweł A. Kołodziejski, Kacper Libera, Viola Strompfová and Małgorzata Szumacher-Strabel

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:228

    Content type: Research

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  6. Porcine circovirus-like virus P1 is a relatively new kind of virus that is closely related to the post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome, congenital tremors, and abortions in swine. The molecular mechanis...

    Authors: Libin Wen, Jiaping Zhu, Fengxi Zhang, Qi Xiao, Jianping Xie and Kongwang He

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:227

    Content type: Research

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  7. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are reactive compounds derived from oxygen. In biological systems, an excessive amount of ROS can cause oxidative damage to biological macromolecules being involved in different d...

    Authors: Camila Peres Rubio and José Joaquin Cerón

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:226

    Content type: Review

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  8. The microbiome of the digestive tract of ruminants contains microbial ecosystem that is affected by both environmental and genetic factors. The subject of this study concerns the influence of selected genetic ...

    Authors: Natalia Szeligowska, Paulina Cholewińska, Katarzyna Czyż, Konrad Wojnarowski and Marzena Janczak

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:224

    Content type: Research

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  9. Long-term cyclic tensile testing with equine palmar/plantar tendons have not yet been performed due to problems in fixing equine tendons securely and loading them cyclically. It is well established that the bi...

    Authors: Franziska C. Wagner, Sven Reese, Kerstin Gerlach, Peter Böttcher and Christoph K. W. Mülling

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:223

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Vestibular syndrome is often accompanied by nausea. Drugs currently approved for its treatment have been developed to stop vomiting but not nausea. The efficacy of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists to reduce nausea has ...

    Authors: S. Foth, S. Meller, H. Kenward, J. Elliott, L. Pelligand and H. A. Volk

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:222

    Content type: Research

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  11. Leptospirosis is an endemic zoonosis in Brazil, with a great impact on human and animal health. Although dogs are frequently infected by pathogenic Leptospira, the current epidemiological understanding of canine ...

    Authors: Cassia Moreira Santos, Gabrielle Cristini Del Rigo Santos Dias, Alexya Victória Pinheiro Saldanha, Stephanie Bergmann Esteves, Adriana Cortez, Israel Barbosa Guedes, Marcos Bryan Heinemann, Amane Paldês Gonçales and Bruno Alonso Miotto

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:221

    Content type: Research

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  12. 5-fluorocytosine is a pyrimidine and a fluorinated cytosine analog mainly used as an antifungal agent. It is a precursor of 5-fluorouracil, which possesses anticancer properties. To reduce systemic toxicity of...

    Authors: Jérémy Béguin, Matthias Kohlhauer, Eve Laloy, Frédérique Degorce, Baptiste Moreau, Éric Quéméneur, Philippe Erbs, Bernard Klonjkowski and Christelle Maurey

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:220

    Content type: Research

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  13. The present study was aimed at establishing the prevalence, epidemiology and molecular characterization of major haemoprotozoons (Babesia and Theileria) and rickettsia (Anaplasma) of cattle in Jammu region (North...

    Authors: Rabjot Kaur, Anish Yadav, Shafiya I. Rafiqi, Rajesh Godara, Vikrant Sudan, D. Chakraborty and Rajesh Katoch

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:219

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Several outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) caused by influenza A virus of subtype H5N8 have been reported in wild birds and poultry in Europe during autumn 2020. Norway is one of the few cou...

    Authors: Knut Madslien, Torfinn Moldal, Britt Gjerset, Sveinn Gudmundsson, Arne Follestad, Elliot Whittard, Ole-Herman Tronerud, Katharine Rose Dean, Johan Åkerstedt, Hannah J. Jørgensen, Carlos G. das Neves and Grim Rømo

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:218

    Content type: Research

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  15. Worldwide, Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) is among the diseases that cause the highest economic impact in modern pig production. PRRS was first detected in Costa Rica in 1996 and has sinc...

    Authors: Mónica Guzmán, Ronald Meléndez, Carlos Jiménez, Marta Piche, Emily Jiménez, Bernal León, Juan M. Cordero, Lisbeth Ramirez-Carvajal, Alberto Uribe, Arie Van Nes, Arjan Stegeman and Juan José Romero

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:217

    Content type: Research article

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  16. The intestinal microbes in mammals play a key role in host metabolism and adaptation. As a subterranean rodent, zokor digs tunnels for foraging and mating. These digging activities of zokors increase the energ...

    Authors: Yao Zou, Nannan Liang, Xuxin Zhang, Chongxuan Han and Xiaoning Nan

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:216

    Content type: Research article

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  17. The popularity of new world camelids, particularly alpacas, is growing rapidly in Ireland, presenting a clinical challenge to veterinary practitioners who may not have worked with these species previously. To ...

    Authors: C. J. Hayes, P. J. O’Brien, A. Wolfe, S. Hoey, C. Chandler, V. Rhodes, C. I. Carty, I. M. Piras and E. G. Ryan

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:215

    Content type: Case Report

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  18. Mycoplasma suis (M. suis) belongs to the group of haemotrophic mycoplasmas and is known as the causative agent of infectious anaemia in pigs. In the last few years valuable insights into the mechanism of adhesion...

    Authors: Julia Stadler, Julia Ade, Walter Hermanns, Mathias Ritzmann, Sarah Wentzel, Katharina Hoelzle and Ludwig E. Hoelzle

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:214

    Content type: Research

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  19. Enterocytozoon bieneusi, a microsporidian species, is a zoonotic pathogen found in both humans and animals. Here, we determined the prevalence, explored the different genotypes of E. bieneusi in wild rhesus macaq...

    Authors: Wei Zhao, Huan-Huan Zhou, Guang-Xu Ren, Yu Qiang, Hui-Cong Huang, Gang Lu and Feng Tan

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:213

    Content type: Research

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  20. Enrofloxacin is an antibacterial drug with broad-spectrum activity that is widely indicated for veterinary use. We aim to develop the clinical applications of Enrofloxacin against colibacillosis by using the n...

    Authors: Xuesong Liu, Qingwen Yang, Yuying Fan, Yuanyi Du, Lei Lei, Dong Wang and Yun Liu

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:212

    Content type: Research

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  21. The poultry industry in Egypt has been suffering from endemic highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, subtype H5N1 since 2006. However, the emergence of H9N2, H5N8, and H5N2 in 2011, 2016, and 2019 res...

    Authors: Yumna Elsobky, David Nganwa, Gamal El Afandi, Ahmed Byomi, Gopal Reddy and Ehsan Abdalla

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:210

    Content type: Research

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  22. Extreme panting under heat stress threatens dairy cattle milk production. Previous research has revealed that the gas exchange-mediated respiratory drive in critically ill dairy cattle with low O2 saturation indu...

    Authors: Jian Wang, Yang Xiang, Shisong Jiang, Hongchang Li, Flurin Caviezel, Suporn Katawatin and Monchai Duangjinda

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:209

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Tube feeding is a common procedure in neonatology. In humans, tube misplacement reportedly occurs in up to 59% of all cases and may lead to perforation in 1.1% of preterm intubated neonates. While numerous stu...

    Authors: Etienne Furthner, Mariusz Paweł Kowalewski, Paul Torgerson and Iris Margaret Reichler

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:208

    Content type: Research

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  24. Canine parvovirus (CPV) is one of the most important pathogens of dogs. Despite vaccination, CPV infections are still ubiquitous in dogs, and the three antigenic variants 2a, 2b and 2c are variously distribute...

    Authors: Andrea Balboni, Mihaela Niculae, Serena Di Vito, Lorenza Urbani, Alessia Terrusi, Cosmin Muresan and Mara Battilani

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:206

    Content type: Research

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  25. Daxocox® [Ecuphar/Animalcare Group] contains the selective COX-2 inhibitor enflicoxib, approved in the EU for the treatment of pain and inflammation associated with osteoarthritis in dogs. The safety of Daxocox® ...

    Authors: Josep Homedes, Marta Salichs and Antonio Guzman

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:205

    Content type: Research

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  26. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of dietary inclusion of silkworm pupae meal (SPM) on nutrient digestibility, nitrogen utilization, gastrointestinal physiology and blood biochemical parameters...

    Authors: Andrzej Gugołek, Dorota Kowalska, Janusz Strychalski, Katarzyna Ognik and Jerzy Juśkiewicz

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:204

    Content type: Research

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  27. Pentatrichomonas hominis inhabits the digestive tracts of several vertebrates, such as humans, monkeys, pigs, dogs, cats and rats. This protozoan was originally considered a commensal of the digestive tract but h...

    Authors: Aongart Mahittikorn, Ruenruetai Udonsom, Khuanchai Koompapong, Rachatawan Chiabchalard, Chantira Sutthikornchai, Preeyaporn Monatrakul Sreepian, Hirotake Mori and Supaluk Popruk

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:203

    Content type: Research

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  28. Capsulitis leads to the release of inflammatory mediators in the joint, causing capsular fibrosis and osteoarthritis (OA). Strain elastosonography (SE) measures the elasticity of tissue by evaluating its strai...

    Authors: Paola Straticò, Giulia Guerri, Adriana Palozzo, Paola Di Francesco, Massimo Vignoli, Vincenzo Varasano and Lucio Petrizzi

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:202

    Content type: Research

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  29. The bispectral index (BIS) is an anaesthesia monitoring technique able to assess the level of central nervous system depression in humans and various animal species. In birds, it has been validated in chickens...

    Authors: Maria Luisa Velasco Gallego, Olga Martin Jurado and Jean-Michel Hatt

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:201

    Content type: Research

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  30. Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) of H5 subtype pose a great threat to the poultry industry and human health. In recent years, H5N6 subtype has rapidly replaced H5N1 as the most predominate HP...

    Authors: Feng Wen, Jing Yang, Jinyue Guo, Congying Wang, Qing Cheng, Zheng Tang, Kaijian Luo, Sheng Yuan, Shujian Huang and Yong Li

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:200

    Content type: Research article

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  31. The objective of the study was to report the incidence and risk factors associated with positive urine bacterial cultures as well as long-term outcome in cats with subcutaneous ureteral bypass (SUB) devices.

    Authors: Julie Deprey, Arnaud Baldinger, Véronique Livet, Margaux Blondel, Mathieu Taroni, Cynthia Lefebvre, Isabelle Goy-Thollot, Pierre Moissonnier, Éric Viguier, Céline Pouzot-Nevoret, Claude Carozzo and Thibaut Cachon

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:199

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Betulin, a natural pentacyclic triterpene with the lupane structure that is present in significant amounts in the outer bark of birch, is known for its broad array of biological and pharmacological properties....

    Authors: Joanna Małaczewska, Edyta Kaczorek-Łukowska and Barbara Kazuń

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:198

    Content type: Research

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  33. The molecular-based classification of canine mammary carcinomas (CMCs) has been the focus of much current research. Both in canines and humans, the triple-negative (TN) molecular subtype of mammary cancer is d...

    Authors: R. Sánchez-Céspedes, M. D. Fernández-Martínez, A. I. Raya, C. Pineda, I. López and Y. Millán

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:197

    Content type: Research

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  34. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is one of the most common serovars, associated with human salmonellosis. The food-borne outbreak of this bacterium is mainly related to the consumption of ...

    Authors: Hassan Bahramianfard, Abdollah Derakhshandeh, Zahra Naziri and Reza Khaltabadi Farahani

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:196

    Content type: Research

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  35. Ovarian chronic inflammation has been known to incidence in the laying hen mainly via increasing laying frequency and microbial infection, especially during late stage of production period. This study was aime...

    Authors: Ali Hatefi, Ahmad Zare Shahneh, Zarbakht Ansari Pirsaraie, Ali Mohammad Alizadeh, Mohammad Pouya Atashnak, Reza Masoudi and Frederic Pio

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:195

    Content type: Research

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  36. Salivary cortisol collected at home is a useful test to diagnose and monitor Cushing’s syndrome in humans. The main problem in dogs is to retrieve a sufficient amount of saliva. The aim of this study was to ev...

    Authors: Solène Meunier, Michael Groessl, Claudia Reusch, Felicitas Boretti and Nadja Sieber-Ruckstuhl

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:194

    Content type: Research

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  37. The partial or complete cranial cruciate ligament rupture is a common skeletal disease affecting the stifle joint in dogs. The tibial plateau levelling osteotomy, performed with several synthesis systems, chan...

    Authors: Francesco Macrì, Luca Cicero, Vito Angileri, Vito Biondi, Piero Miele, Lorenzo Scaletta, Giovanna Lucrezia Costa, Giovanni Cassata and Simona Di Pietro

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:193

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Histoplasma (H.) capsulatum is a dimorphic fungus, and infection is typically via inhalation of microconidia. After conversion to the yeast phase within the lung, the organism is subsequently disseminated to othe...

    Authors: Romy M. Heilmann, Mary B. Nabity, Laura K. Bryan, Audrey K. Cook and Katherine Scott

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:192

    Content type: Case Report

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  39. Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is a preferred vector for recombinant vaccine construction. Previously, we generated a TK&gE-deleted PRV (PRVΔTK&gE−AH02) based on a virulent PRV AH02LA strain. It was shown to be safe fo...

    Authors: Chuanjian Zhang, Shiqi Guo, Rongli Guo, Saisai Chen, Yating Zheng, Mengwei Xu, Zhisheng Wang, Yamei Liu and Jichun Wang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:190

    Content type: Research

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  40. Lameness is a debilitating condition in equine athletes that leads to more performance limitation and loss of use than any other medical condition. There are a limited number of non-terminal experimental model...

    Authors: Amanda Watkins, Diana Fasanello, Darko Stefanovski, Sydney Schurer, Katherine Caracappa, Albert D’Agostino, Emily Costello, Heather Freer, Alicia Rollins, Claire Read, Jin Su, Marshall Colville, Matthew Paszek, Bettina Wagner and Heidi Reesink

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:189

    Content type: Research

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  41. Classical swine fever (CSF) is a contagious disease of pigs and wild boars that is transmitted through direct/indirect contact between animals or CSF virus-contaminated fomites. When the disease re-emerged in ...

    Authors: Yumiko Shimizu, Yoko Hayama, Yoshinori Murato, Kotaro Sawai, Emi Yamaguchi and Takehisa Yamamoto

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:188

    Content type: Research

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  42. Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic inflammatory disease that causes granuloma formation mainly in retropharyngeal, tracheobronchial, mediastinal lymph nodes and lungs of bovines. The presence of these lesions in...

    Authors: Jacobo Carrisoza-Urbina, Mario A. Bedolla-Alva, Mireya Juárez-Ramírez and José A. Gutiérrez-Pabello

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:187

    Content type: Case Report

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  43. Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and Haemorrhagic septicemia (HS) are two important diseases that are known to have caused significant economic losses to the cattle industry. Accordingly, vaccinations have been re...

    Authors: Anucha Muenthaisong, Amarin Rittipornlertrak, Boondarika Nambooppha, Pallop Tankaew, Thanya Varinrak, Marutpong Pumpuang, Korkiat Muangthai, Kheemchompu Atthikanyaphak, Tawatchai Singhla, Kidsadagon Pringproa, Veerasak Punyapornwithaya, Takuo Sawada and Nattawooti Sthitmatee

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:186

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Platyhelminth infections of livestock can result in considerable economic losses. This study aims to evaluate the spatial frequency of cystic echinococcosis (CE), dicrocoeliasis, and fascioliasis in livestock ...

    Authors: Behzad Kiani, Christine M. Budke, Ebrahim Shams Abadi, Soheil Hashtarkhani, Amene Raouf Rahmati, Mostafa AkbarPour, Mehdi Zarean, Bibi Razieh Hosseini Farash, Fatemeh Kiani and Elham Moghaddas

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:185

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  45. Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is a contagious intestinal disease caused by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) characterized by vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia, and dehydration, which have caused huge econom...

    Authors: Xiaowen Li, Bingzhou Zhang, Dasheng Zhang, Sidang Liu and Jing Ren

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:184

    Content type: Research

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  46. The present study investigated whether the administration of the progestin altrenogest provides noninvasive, temporary, and reversible suppression of gonadal function in the goat as a potential alternative to ...

    Authors: Lisa Mihsler-Kirsch, Henrik Wagner, Klaus Failing and Axel Wehrend

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:183

    Content type: Research article

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