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  1. Content type: Research article

    The variability in the clinical or pathological presentation of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) in sheep, such as scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), has been attributed to pri...

    Authors: Timm Konold, Gemma Bone, Alberto Vidal-Diez, Raul Tortosa, Andrew Davis, Glenda Dexter, Peter Hill, Martin Jeffrey, Marion M Simmons, Melanie J Chaplin, Susan J Bellworthy and Christine Berthelin-Baker

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2008 4:16

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  2. Content type: Research article

    Indication-based data on the use of antimicrobials in animals were collected using a prospective cross-sectional survey, similarly as for surveys carried out in human medicine, but adapting the questionnaire t...

    Authors: Katariina Thomson, Merja Rantala, Maria Hautala, Satu Pyörälä and Liisa Kaartinen

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2008 4:15

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  3. Content type: Research article

    The risk of scrapie infection increases with increased duration and proximity of contact between sheep at lambing. Scrapie infectivity has not been detected in milk but cellular prion protein, the precursor of...

    Authors: Timm Konold, S Jo Moore, Susan J Bellworthy and Hugh A Simmons

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2008 4:14

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  4. Content type: Research article

    In scrapie and prion diseases, the knowledge concerning genes involved in host response during the early infection period in the lymphoid tissues, still remains limited. In the present study, we have examined ...

    Authors: Lars Austbø, Andreas Kampmann, Ulf Müller-Ladner, Elena Neumann, Ingrid Olsaker and Grethe Skretting

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2008 4:12

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  5. Content type: Research article

    Several forms of progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) segregate in more than 100 breeds of dog with each PRA segregating in one or a few breeds. This breed specificity may be accounted for by founder effects and ...

    Authors: Thierry Vilboux, Gilles Chaudieu, Patricia Jeannin, Delphine Delattre, Benoit Hedan, Catherine Bourgain, Guillaume Queney, Francis Galibert, Anne Thomas and Catherine André

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2008 4:10

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  6. Content type: Research article

    In the recent past, the introduction of Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV) followed by between-herd spread has given rise to a number of large epidemics in The Netherlands and Belgium. Both these countries are...

    Authors: Gert Jan Boender, Gonnie Nodelijk, Thomas J Hagenaars, Armin RW Elbers and Mart CM de Jong

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2008 4:9

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  7. Content type: Research article

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of bronchial epithelium to airway inflammation, with focus on mRNA and protein expression of cytokines of innate immunity IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α, in horses...

    Authors: Miia Riihimäki, Amanda Raine, Jamshid Pourazar, Thomas Sandström, Tatiana Art, Pierre Lekeux, Laurent Couëtil and John Pringle

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2008 4:8

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  8. Content type: Research article

    The Gambia has an increasing population of equidae largely used for agriculture and transportation. A review of cases at The Gambian Horse and Donkey Trust (GHDT) indicated that a common reason for presentation i...

    Authors: Gina L Pinchbeck, Liam J Morrison, Andy Tait, Joanna Langford, Lucinda Meehan, Saloum Jallow, Jibril Jallow, Amadou Jallow and Robert M Christley

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2008 4:7

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Estimates of demographic parameters, such as age-specific survival and fecundity, age at first pregnancy and litter size, are required for roaming dogs (i.e. dogs that are neither confined nor restricted) to a...

    Authors: John F Reece, Sunil K Chawla, Elly F Hiby and Lex R Hiby

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2008 4:6

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  10. Content type: Research article

    Mass vaccination of owned domestic dogs is crucial for the control of rabies in sub-Saharan Africa. Knowledge of the proportion of households which own dogs, and of the factors associated with dog ownership, i...

    Authors: Darryn L Knobel, M Karen Laurenson, Rudovick R Kazwala, Lisa A Boden and Sarah Cleaveland

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2008 4:5

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Several studies have shown that a number of serovars of Salmonella enterica may be isolated from wild birds, and it has been suggested that wild birds may play a role in the epidemiology of human and livestock sa...

    Authors: Laura A Hughes, Sara Shopland, Paul Wigley, Hannah Bradon, A Howard Leatherbarrow, Nicola J Williams, Malcolm Bennett, Elizabeth de Pinna, Becki Lawson, Andrew A Cunningham and Julian Chantrey

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2008 4:4

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  12. Content type: Research article

    The effect of age on the bone mineral density and microarchitecture of the equine radius and tibia was investigated. Fifty-six bones from 15 horses aged four to 21 years were used. There were nine geldings and...

    Authors: A Fürst, D Meier, S Michel, A Schmidlin, L Held and A Laib

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2008 4:3

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  13. Content type: Research article

    The identification of the routes of dissemination of Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157 through a cohort of cattle is a critical step to control this pathogen at farm level. The aim of this study was to identify pot...

    Authors: Mary Murphy, Donal Minihan, James F Buckley, Micheál O'Mahony, Paul Whyte and Séamus Fanning

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2008 4:2

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  14. Content type: Research article

    The acute phase response is the immediate host response to infection, inflammation and trauma and can be monitored by measuring the acute phase proteins (APP) such as haptoglobin (Hp) or serum amyloid A (SAA)....

    Authors: Peter D Eckersall, Fraser P Lawson, Carol E Kyle, Mary Waterston, Laura Bence, Michael J Stear and Stewart M Rhind

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2008 4:1

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) is a disease of small ruminants caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. The pathogenesis of CLA is a slow process, and produces a chronic rather than an acute disease state. Acut...

    Authors: Peter D Eckersall, Fraser P Lawson, Laura Bence, Mary M Waterston, Tamara L Lang, William Donachie and Michael C Fontaine

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2007 3:35

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1) is responsible of systemic diseases in kids and genital diseases leading to abortions in goats. CpHV-1 is widespread and especially in Mediterranean countries as Greece, Italy an...

    Authors: Julien Thiry, Maria Tempesta, Michele Camero, Elvira Tarsitano, Benoît Muylkens, François Meurens, Etienne Thiry and Canio Buonavoglia

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2007 3:33

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Bovine anaplasmosis has been reported in several European countries, but the vector competency of tick species for Anaplasma marginale from these localities has not been determined. Because of the wide distributi...

    Authors: Zorica Zivkovic, Ard M Nijhof, José de la Fuente, Katherine M Kocan and Frans Jongejan

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2007 3:32

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  18. Content type: Research article

    The concurrent rise in consumption of fresh chicken meat and human campylobacteriosis in the late 1990's in Iceland led to a longitudinal study of the poultry industry to identify the means to decrease the fre...

    Authors: Michele T Guerin, Wayne Martin, Jarle Reiersen, Olaf Berke, Scott A McEwen, Jean-Robert Bisaillon and Ruff Lowman

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2007 3:30

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Cattle twins are well known as blood chimeras. However, chimerism in the actual hematopoietic progenitor compartment has not been directly investigated. Here, we analyzed fetal liver of chimeric freemartin cat...

    Authors: Mikael Niku, Tiina Pessa-Morikawa, Juhani Taponen and Antti Iivanainen

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2007 3:29

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  20. Content type: Correspondence

    Dilated cardiomyopathy is a myocardial disease occurring in humans and domestic animals and is characterized by dilatation of the left ventricle, reduced systolic function and increased sphericity of the left ...

    Authors: Anje C Wiersma, Peter AJ Leegwater, Bernard A van Oost, William E Ollier and Joanna Dukes-McEwan

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2007 3:28

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  21. Content type: Research article

    The most predominant beta2-integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1, CD11a/CD18, alphaLbeta2), expressed on all leukocytes, is essential for many adhesive functions of the immune system. Interesti...

    Authors: Philippe GAC Vanden Bergh, Laurent LM Zecchinon, Thomas Fett and Daniel JM Desmecht

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2007 3:27

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  22. Content type: Research article

    The genus Varicellovirus of the Herpesviridae subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae includes a cluster of viruses antigenically and genetically related to bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1): namely bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5...

    Authors: Julien Thiry, Frederik Widén, Fabien Grégoire, Annick Linden, Sándor Belák and Etienne Thiry

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2007 3:26

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  23. Content type: Research article

    The morphopathological picture of a subset of equine myopathies is compatible with a primary mitochondrial disease, but functional confirmation in vivo is still pending. The cationic dye JC-1 exhibits potentia...

    Authors: Dominique Cassart, Thomas Fett, Michaël Sarlet, Etienne Baise, Freddy Coignoul and Daniel Desmecht

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2007 3:25

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  24. Content type: Research article

    Prevention and control of ovine enzootic abortion (OEA) can be achieved by application of a live vaccine. In this study, five sheep flocks with different vaccination and infection status were serologically tes...

    Authors: Andrea Gerber, Ruedi Thoma, Evangelia Vretou, Evgenia Psarrou, Carmen Kaiser, Marcus G Doherr, Dieter R Zimmermann, Adam Polkinghorne, Andreas Pospischil and Nicole Borel

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2007 3:24

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  25. Content type: Research article

    African buffaloes are the maintenance host for Mycobacterium bovis in the endemically infected Kruger National Park (KNP). The infection is primarily spread between buffaloes via the respiratory route, but it is ...

    Authors: Anita L Michel, Lin-Mari de Klerk, Nico C Gey van Pittius, Rob M Warren and Paul D van Helden

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2007 3:23

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  26. Content type: Research article

    The exact role of the lymphoreticular system in the spread of peripheral prion infections to the central nervous system still needs further elucidation. Against this background, the influence of the regional l...

    Authors: Christine Kratzel, Dominique Krüger and Michael Beekes

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2007 3:22

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  27. Content type: Methodology article

    Performances of different salmonella detection methods were evaluated by applying them to of artificially contaminated faecal specimens from cattle, pigs and poultry. The NMKL71 method, being the standard refe...

    Authors: Erik Eriksson and Anna Aspan

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2007 3:21

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Active surveillance for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in small ruminants has been an EU regulatory requirement since 2002. A number of European countries have subsequently reported cases of atypica...

    Authors: Marion M Simmons, Timm Konold, Hugh A Simmons, Yvonne I Spencer, Richard Lockey, John Spiropoulos, Sharon Everitt and Derek Clifford

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2007 3:20

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Cutaneous mast cell tumours are one of the most common neoplasms in dogs and show a highly variable biologic behaviour. Several prognosis tools have been proposed for canine mast cell tumours, including histol...

    Authors: Rui M Gil da Costa, Eduarda Matos, Alexandra Rema, Célia Lopes, Maria A Pires and Fátima Gärtner

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2007 3:19

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  30. Content type: Research article

    Johne's disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gut caused by infection with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). Symptoms include wasting, diarrhoea, loss of condition and eventual dea...

    Authors: Jennifer A Smeed, Craig A Watkins, Susan M Rhind and John Hopkins

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2007 3:18

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  31. Content type: Research article

    Salmonella Dublin (S. Dublin) is a zoonotic bacterium which is host adapted to cattle. The bacterium can cause subclinical persistent infection in cattle (carriers), which may be reactivated. During reactivation,...

    Authors: Sanne R Lomborg, Jørgen S Agerholm, Asger L Jensen and Liza R Nielsen

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2007 3:17

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  32. Content type: Methodology article

    Pain of mild to moderate grade is difficult to detect in laboratory mice because mice are prey animals that attempt to elude predators or man by hiding signs of weakness, injury or pain. In this study, we inve...

    Authors: Margarete Arras, Andreas Rettich, Paolo Cinelli, Hans P Kasermann and Kurt Burki

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2007 3:16

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  33. Content type: Research article

    Glomerulonephritis in dogs has been associated with B. burgdorferi infections. In Bernese Mountain Dogs with glomerulonephritis antibodies against B. burgdorferi have been found in most dogs, raising the question...

    Authors: Bernhard Gerber, Simone Eichenberger, Max M Wittenbrink and Claudia E Reusch

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2007 3:15

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  34. Content type: Research article

    Two annual surveys, the abattoir and the fallen stock, monitor the presence of scrapie across Europe. A simple comparison between the prevalence estimates in different countries reveals that, in 2003, the abat...

    Authors: Victor J Del Rio Vilas, Petter Hopp, Telmo Nunes, Giuseppe Ru, Kumar Sivam and Angel Ortiz-Pelaez

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2007 3:13

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  35. Content type: Research article

    We have evaluated a sensitive screening assay for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) complex organisms and a specific assay for detecting Mycobacterium bovis DNA in lymph nodes taken from cattle with evidence of bo...

    Authors: G Michael Taylor, Danny R Worth, Si Palmer, Keith Jahans and R Glyn Hewinson

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2007 3:12

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  36. Content type: Methodology article

    There are a few works considering the characterization of canine monocyte-derived macrophages as well as a standardized procedure for isolation, culture, and infection of these cells with Leishmania. We have perf...

    Authors: Weverton M Sampaio, Eliane P Moura, Felipe CS Arruda, Raul R Ribeiro, Cíntia F Alves, Ferdinan A Melo, Ana Paula SM Fernandes, Marilene SM Michalick, Maria N Melo, Washington L Tafuri and Wagner L Tafuri

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2007 3:11

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  37. Content type: Methodology article

    International trade regulations require that countries document their livestock's sanitary status in general and freedom from specific infective agents in detail provided that import restrictions should be app...

    Authors: Lea Knopf, Heinzpeter Schwermer and Katharina DC Stärk

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2007 3:10

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  38. Content type: Research article

    The quantification of gene expression in tissue samples requires the use of reference genes to normalise transcript numbers between different samples. Reference gene stability may vary between different tissue...

    Authors: Duncan Ayers, Dylan N Clements, Fiona Salway and Philip JR Day

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2007 3:7

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  39. Content type: Research article

    Helminth infections in small ruminants are serious problems in the developing world, particularly where nutrition and sanitation are poor. This study investigated the burden and risk factors of gastrointestina...

    Authors: Agricola Odoi, Joseph M Gathuma, Charles K Gachuiri and Amos Omore

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2007 3:6

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  40. Content type: Research article

    Dogs are popular pets in many countries. Identifying differences between those who own dogs or have contact with dogs, and those who do not, is useful to those interested in the human-animal bond, human health...

    Authors: Carri Westgarth, Gina L Pinchbeck, John WS Bradshaw, Susan Dawson, Rosalind M Gaskell and Robert M Christley

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2007 3:5

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  41. Content type: Research article

    Desmoglein 1 (DSG1) is the target protein in the skin disease exudative epidermitis in pigs caused by virulent strains of Staphylococcus hyicus. The exfoliative toxins produced by S. hyicus digest the porcine des...

    Authors: Lise Daugaard, Lars Ole Andresen and Merete Fredholm

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2007 3:4

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  42. Content type: Research article

    Injury to the supraspinous ligament (SSL) is reported to cause back pain in the horse. The diagnosis is based on clinical examination and confirmed by ultrasonographic examination. The ultrasonographic appeara...

    Authors: Frances MD Henson, Luis Lamas, Sabina Knezevic and Leo B Jeffcott

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2007 3:3

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  43. Content type: Case report

    Atypical scrapie is a recently recognised form of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of sheep that differs from classical scrapie in its neuropathological and biochemical features. Most cases are detected...

    Authors: Timm Konold, Andrew Davis, Gemma Bone, John Bracegirdle, Sharon Everitt, Melanie Chaplin, Ginny C Saunders, Saira Cawthraw and Marion M Simmons

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2007 3:2

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