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  1. The intestinal microbes in mammals play a key role in host metabolism and adaptation. As a subterranean rodent, zokor digs tunnels for foraging and mating. These digging activities of zokors increase the energ...

    Authors: Yao Zou, Nannan Liang, Xuxin Zhang, Chongxuan Han and Xiaoning Nan

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:216

    Content type: Research article

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  2. The popularity of new world camelids, particularly alpacas, is growing rapidly in Ireland, presenting a clinical challenge to veterinary practitioners who may not have worked with these species previously. To ...

    Authors: C. J. Hayes, P. J. O’Brien, A. Wolfe, S. Hoey, C. Chandler, V. Rhodes, C. I. Carty, I. M. Piras and E. G. Ryan

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:215

    Content type: Case Report

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  3. Mycoplasma suis (M. suis) belongs to the group of haemotrophic mycoplasmas and is known as the causative agent of infectious anaemia in pigs. In the last few years valuable insights into the mechanism of adhesion...

    Authors: Julia Stadler, Julia Ade, Walter Hermanns, Mathias Ritzmann, Sarah Wentzel, Katharina Hoelzle and Ludwig E. Hoelzle

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:214

    Content type: Research

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  4. Enterocytozoon bieneusi, a microsporidian species, is a zoonotic pathogen found in both humans and animals. Here, we determined the prevalence, explored the different genotypes of E. bieneusi in wild rhesus macaq...

    Authors: Wei Zhao, Huan-Huan Zhou, Guang-Xu Ren, Yu Qiang, Hui-Cong Huang, Gang Lu and Feng Tan

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:213

    Content type: Research

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  5. Enrofloxacin is an antibacterial drug with broad-spectrum activity that is widely indicated for veterinary use. We aim to develop the clinical applications of Enrofloxacin against colibacillosis by using the n...

    Authors: Xuesong Liu, Qingwen Yang, Yuying Fan, Yuanyi Du, Lei Lei, Dong Wang and Yun Liu

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:212

    Content type: Research

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  6. The poultry industry in Egypt has been suffering from endemic highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, subtype H5N1 since 2006. However, the emergence of H9N2, H5N8, and H5N2 in 2011, 2016, and 2019 res...

    Authors: Yumna Elsobky, David Nganwa, Gamal El Afandi, Ahmed Byomi, Gopal Reddy and Ehsan Abdalla

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:210

    Content type: Research

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  7. Extreme panting under heat stress threatens dairy cattle milk production. Previous research has revealed that the gas exchange-mediated respiratory drive in critically ill dairy cattle with low O2 saturation indu...

    Authors: Jian Wang, Yang Xiang, Shisong Jiang, Hongchang Li, Flurin Caviezel, Suporn Katawatin and Monchai Duangjinda

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:209

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Tube feeding is a common procedure in neonatology. In humans, tube misplacement reportedly occurs in up to 59% of all cases and may lead to perforation in 1.1% of preterm intubated neonates. While numerous stu...

    Authors: Etienne Furthner, Mariusz Paweł Kowalewski, Paul Torgerson and Iris Margaret Reichler

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:208

    Content type: Research

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  9. Canine parvovirus (CPV) is one of the most important pathogens of dogs. Despite vaccination, CPV infections are still ubiquitous in dogs, and the three antigenic variants 2a, 2b and 2c are variously distribute...

    Authors: Andrea Balboni, Mihaela Niculae, Serena Di Vito, Lorenza Urbani, Alessia Terrusi, Cosmin Muresan and Mara Battilani

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:206

    Content type: Research

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  10. Daxocox® [Ecuphar/Animalcare Group] contains the selective COX-2 inhibitor enflicoxib, approved in the EU for the treatment of pain and inflammation associated with osteoarthritis in dogs. The safety of Daxocox® ...

    Authors: Josep Homedes, Marta Salichs and Antonio Guzman

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:205

    Content type: Research

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  11. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of dietary inclusion of silkworm pupae meal (SPM) on nutrient digestibility, nitrogen utilization, gastrointestinal physiology and blood biochemical parameters...

    Authors: Andrzej Gugołek, Dorota Kowalska, Janusz Strychalski, Katarzyna Ognik and Jerzy Juśkiewicz

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:204

    Content type: Research

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  12. Pentatrichomonas hominis inhabits the digestive tracts of several vertebrates, such as humans, monkeys, pigs, dogs, cats and rats. This protozoan was originally considered a commensal of the digestive tract but h...

    Authors: Aongart Mahittikorn, Ruenruetai Udonsom, Khuanchai Koompapong, Rachatawan Chiabchalard, Chantira Sutthikornchai, Preeyaporn Monatrakul Sreepian, Hirotake Mori and Supaluk Popruk

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:203

    Content type: Research

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  13. Capsulitis leads to the release of inflammatory mediators in the joint, causing capsular fibrosis and osteoarthritis (OA). Strain elastosonography (SE) measures the elasticity of tissue by evaluating its strai...

    Authors: Paola Straticò, Giulia Guerri, Adriana Palozzo, Paola Di Francesco, Massimo Vignoli, Vincenzo Varasano and Lucio Petrizzi

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:202

    Content type: Research

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  14. The bispectral index (BIS) is an anaesthesia monitoring technique able to assess the level of central nervous system depression in humans and various animal species. In birds, it has been validated in chickens...

    Authors: Maria Luisa Velasco Gallego, Olga Martin Jurado and Jean-Michel Hatt

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:201

    Content type: Research

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  15. Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) of H5 subtype pose a great threat to the poultry industry and human health. In recent years, H5N6 subtype has rapidly replaced H5N1 as the most predominate HP...

    Authors: Feng Wen, Jing Yang, Jinyue Guo, Congying Wang, Qing Cheng, Zheng Tang, Kaijian Luo, Sheng Yuan, Shujian Huang and Yong Li

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:200

    Content type: Research article

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  16. The objective of the study was to report the incidence and risk factors associated with positive urine bacterial cultures as well as long-term outcome in cats with subcutaneous ureteral bypass (SUB) devices.

    Authors: Julie Deprey, Arnaud Baldinger, Véronique Livet, Margaux Blondel, Mathieu Taroni, Cynthia Lefebvre, Isabelle Goy-Thollot, Pierre Moissonnier, Éric Viguier, Céline Pouzot-Nevoret, Claude Carozzo and Thibaut Cachon

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:199

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Betulin, a natural pentacyclic triterpene with the lupane structure that is present in significant amounts in the outer bark of birch, is known for its broad array of biological and pharmacological properties....

    Authors: Joanna Małaczewska, Edyta Kaczorek-Łukowska and Barbara Kazuń

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:198

    Content type: Research

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  18. The molecular-based classification of canine mammary carcinomas (CMCs) has been the focus of much current research. Both in canines and humans, the triple-negative (TN) molecular subtype of mammary cancer is d...

    Authors: R. Sánchez-Céspedes, M. D. Fernández-Martínez, A. I. Raya, C. Pineda, I. López and Y. Millán

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:197

    Content type: Research

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  19. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is one of the most common serovars, associated with human salmonellosis. The food-borne outbreak of this bacterium is mainly related to the consumption of ...

    Authors: Hassan Bahramianfard, Abdollah Derakhshandeh, Zahra Naziri and Reza Khaltabadi Farahani

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:196

    Content type: Research

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  20. Ovarian chronic inflammation has been known to incidence in the laying hen mainly via increasing laying frequency and microbial infection, especially during late stage of production period. This study was aime...

    Authors: Ali Hatefi, Ahmad Zare Shahneh, Zarbakht Ansari Pirsaraie, Ali Mohammad Alizadeh, Mohammad Pouya Atashnak, Reza Masoudi and Frederic Pio

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:195

    Content type: Research

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  21. Salivary cortisol collected at home is a useful test to diagnose and monitor Cushing’s syndrome in humans. The main problem in dogs is to retrieve a sufficient amount of saliva. The aim of this study was to ev...

    Authors: Solène Meunier, Michael Groessl, Claudia Reusch, Felicitas Boretti and Nadja Sieber-Ruckstuhl

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:194

    Content type: Research

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  22. The partial or complete cranial cruciate ligament rupture is a common skeletal disease affecting the stifle joint in dogs. The tibial plateau levelling osteotomy, performed with several synthesis systems, chan...

    Authors: Francesco Macrì, Luca Cicero, Vito Angileri, Vito Biondi, Piero Miele, Lorenzo Scaletta, Giovanna Lucrezia Costa, Giovanni Cassata and Simona Di Pietro

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:193

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Histoplasma (H.) capsulatum is a dimorphic fungus, and infection is typically via inhalation of microconidia. After conversion to the yeast phase within the lung, the organism is subsequently disseminated to othe...

    Authors: Romy M. Heilmann, Mary B. Nabity, Laura K. Bryan, Audrey K. Cook and Katherine Scott

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:192

    Content type: Case Report

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  24. Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is a preferred vector for recombinant vaccine construction. Previously, we generated a TK&gE-deleted PRV (PRVΔTK&gE−AH02) based on a virulent PRV AH02LA strain. It was shown to be safe fo...

    Authors: Chuanjian Zhang, Shiqi Guo, Rongli Guo, Saisai Chen, Yating Zheng, Mengwei Xu, Zhisheng Wang, Yamei Liu and Jichun Wang

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:190

    Content type: Research

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  25. Lameness is a debilitating condition in equine athletes that leads to more performance limitation and loss of use than any other medical condition. There are a limited number of non-terminal experimental model...

    Authors: Amanda Watkins, Diana Fasanello, Darko Stefanovski, Sydney Schurer, Katherine Caracappa, Albert D’Agostino, Emily Costello, Heather Freer, Alicia Rollins, Claire Read, Jin Su, Marshall Colville, Matthew Paszek, Bettina Wagner and Heidi Reesink

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:189

    Content type: Research

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  26. Classical swine fever (CSF) is a contagious disease of pigs and wild boars that is transmitted through direct/indirect contact between animals or CSF virus-contaminated fomites. When the disease re-emerged in ...

    Authors: Yumiko Shimizu, Yoko Hayama, Yoshinori Murato, Kotaro Sawai, Emi Yamaguchi and Takehisa Yamamoto

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:188

    Content type: Research

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  27. Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic inflammatory disease that causes granuloma formation mainly in retropharyngeal, tracheobronchial, mediastinal lymph nodes and lungs of bovines. The presence of these lesions in...

    Authors: Jacobo Carrisoza-Urbina, Mario A. Bedolla-Alva, Mireya Juárez-Ramírez and José A. Gutiérrez-Pabello

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:187

    Content type: Case Report

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  28. Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and Haemorrhagic septicemia (HS) are two important diseases that are known to have caused significant economic losses to the cattle industry. Accordingly, vaccinations have been re...

    Authors: Anucha Muenthaisong, Amarin Rittipornlertrak, Boondarika Nambooppha, Pallop Tankaew, Thanya Varinrak, Marutpong Pumpuang, Korkiat Muangthai, Kheemchompu Atthikanyaphak, Tawatchai Singhla, Kidsadagon Pringproa, Veerasak Punyapornwithaya, Takuo Sawada and Nattawooti Sthitmatee

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:186

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Platyhelminth infections of livestock can result in considerable economic losses. This study aims to evaluate the spatial frequency of cystic echinococcosis (CE), dicrocoeliasis, and fascioliasis in livestock ...

    Authors: Behzad Kiani, Christine M. Budke, Ebrahim Shams Abadi, Soheil Hashtarkhani, Amene Raouf Rahmati, Mostafa AkbarPour, Mehdi Zarean, Bibi Razieh Hosseini Farash, Fatemeh Kiani and Elham Moghaddas

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:185

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is a contagious intestinal disease caused by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) characterized by vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia, and dehydration, which have caused huge econom...

    Authors: Xiaowen Li, Bingzhou Zhang, Dasheng Zhang, Sidang Liu and Jing Ren

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:184

    Content type: Research

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  31. The present study investigated whether the administration of the progestin altrenogest provides noninvasive, temporary, and reversible suppression of gonadal function in the goat as a potential alternative to ...

    Authors: Lisa Mihsler-Kirsch, Henrik Wagner, Klaus Failing and Axel Wehrend

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:183

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Mechanisms of fetal death following maternal PRRSV2 infection remain uncharacterized, although hypoxia from umbilical cord lesions and/or placental detachment due to apoptosis are hypothesized. We performed tw...

    Authors: Carolina M. Malgarin, Fiona Moser, J. Alex Pasternak, Glenn Hamonic, Susan E. Detmer, Daniel J. MacPhee and John C. S. Harding

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:182

    Content type: Research

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  33. As one of the most common surgeries performed in veterinary medicine, ovariohysterectomy (OHE) can induce oxidative stress in dogs. The antioxidant properties of melatonin have been confirmed in various studie...

    Authors: Sina Salavati, Asghar Mogheiseh, Saeed Nazifi, Atefeh Amiri and Behrooz Nikahval

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:181

    Content type: Research article

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  34. In dogs, thermal imaging has been documented only recently, but a growing interest in this modality has led to studies using thermography to assess pathologies in the canine hip, stifle, elbow, intervertebral ...

    Authors: J. C. Alves, A. Santos, P. Jorge, C. Lavrador and L. Miguel Carreira

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:180

    Content type: Research article

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  35. The varroa mite is one of the main causes of honey bee mortality. An important mechanism by which honey bees increase their resistance against this mite is the expression of suppressed mite reproduction. This ...

    Authors: David Claeys Boúúaert, Mario Van Poucke, Lina De Smet, Wim Verbeke, Dirk C. de Graaf and Luc Peelman

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:179

    Content type: Methodology article

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  36. Hypocalcemia has detrimental effects on health and performance of dairy cows. As hypocalcemic cows show reduced feed intake, we hypothesized that cows with reduced combined rumination and eating time (CRET) ma...

    Authors: Pablo Pinedo, Diego Manríquez, Nicolas Marotta, Giuliano Mongiello, Carlos Risco, Leen Leenaerts, Hans Bothe and Juan Velez

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:178

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), especially methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), is considered a common zoonotic pathogen, causing severe infections. The objective of this study was to investigat...

    Authors: Ting Gan, Gang Shu, Hualin Fu, Qigui Yan, Wei Zhang, Huaqiao Tang, Lizi Yin, Ling Zhao and Juchun Lin

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:177

    Content type: Research

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  38. Inflammation and oxidative stress can contribute to the development and progression of heart failure. This study aimed to investigate the association between inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in dogs w...

    Authors: Alenka Nemec Svete, Barbara Verk, Nina Čebulj-Kadunc, Janez Salobir, Vida Rezar and Aleksandra Domanjko Petrič

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:176

    Content type: Research

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  39. Ischaemic postconditioning (IPoC) refers to brief periods of reocclusion of blood supply following an ischaemic event. This has been shown to ameliorate ischaemia reperfusion injury in different tissues, and i...

    Authors: Nicole Verhaar, Nicole de Buhr, Maren von Köckritz-Blickwede, Marion Hewicker-Trautwein, Christiane Pfarrer, Gemma Mazzuoli-Weber, Henri Schulte and Sabine Kästner

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:175

    Content type: Research

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  40. Cystic endometrial hyperplasia-pyometra complex (CEH-P) is one of the most common uteropathies in bitches. In diseases with mild or obscure clinical signs and normal uterine size, a diagnosis based on a clinic...

    Authors: Magdalena Woźna-Wysocka, Marta Rybska, Beata Błaszak, Bartłomiej M. Jaśkowski, Magdalena Kulus and Jędrzej M. Jaśkowski

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:174

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Enlargement of the prostate is associated with prostatic diseases in dogs, and an estimation of prostatic size is a central part in the diagnostic workup. Ultrasonography is often the method of choice, but bio...

    Authors: Bodil S. Holst, Sofia Carlin, Virginie Fouriez-Lablée, Sofia Hanås, Sofie Ödling, Liss-Marie Langborg, S. J. Kumari A. Ubhayasekera, Jonas Bergquist, Jesper Rydén, Elin Holmroos and Kerstin Hansson

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:173

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Canine distemper virus (CDV) is an enveloped negative-strand RNA virus that exhibits a high mutation rate and continuously expands the range of hosts. Notably, CDV has infected giant panda with spill over from...

    Authors: Pei Huang, Yue Yu, Xianyong Meng, Tiecheng Wang, Feihu Yan, Entao Li, Zhikang Shi, Hongbin He, Songtao Yang, Xianzhu Xia, Jianzhong Wang and Na Feng

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:172

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a known co-morbidity in West Highland white terriers (WHWTs) affected with canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (CIPF). The pulmonary vein-to-right pulmonary artery ratio (PV/PA)...

    Authors: Elodie Roels, Aline Fastrès, Anne-Christine Merveille, Géraldine Bolen, Erik Teske, Cécile Clercx and Kathleen Mc Entee

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:171

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Mycoplasma bovis is an important pathogen of cattle worldwide. Many different clinical manifestations of infection can occur, including respiratory disease, arthritis, and mastitis, causing heavy losses to beef a...

    Authors: Aric J. McDaniel and Rachel J. Derscheid

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:170

    Content type: Research article

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  45. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Raad Askar, Elin Fredriksson, Elin Manell, Mikael Hedeland, Ulf Bondesson, Simon Bate, Lena Olsén and Patricia Hedenqvist

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:169

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:436

  46. Equine infectious anemia (EIA) is a viral disease, caused by the Equine Infectious Anemia virus (EIAV) belonging to the Retroviridae family, genus Lentivirus. Horses (or equids) infected with EIAV are lifelong ca...

    Authors: Diana Lupulovic, Sara Savić, Delphine Gaudaire, Nicolas Berthet, Živoslav Grgić, Kazimir Matović, Alexandre Deshiere and Aymeric Hans

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:168

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  47. Equine small intestinal resection and anastomosis is a procedure where optimizing speed, without compromising integrity, is advantageous. There are a range of different needle holders available, but little is ...

    Authors: Kate Averay, Gaby van Galen, Michael Ward and Denis Verwilghen

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:167

    Content type: Research article

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