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  1. The variability in the clinical or pathological presentation of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) in sheep, such as scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), has been attributed to pri...

    Authors: Timm Konold, Gemma Bone, Alberto Vidal-Diez, Raul Tortosa, Andrew Davis, Glenda Dexter, Peter Hill, Martin Jeffrey, Marion M Simmons, Melanie J Chaplin, Susan J Bellworthy and Christine Berthelin-Baker
    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2008 4:16
  2. Indication-based data on the use of antimicrobials in animals were collected using a prospective cross-sectional survey, similarly as for surveys carried out in human medicine, but adapting the questionnaire t...

    Authors: Katariina Thomson, Merja Rantala, Maria Hautala, Satu Pyörälä and Liisa Kaartinen
    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2008 4:15
  3. The risk of scrapie infection increases with increased duration and proximity of contact between sheep at lambing. Scrapie infectivity has not been detected in milk but cellular prion protein, the precursor of...

    Authors: Timm Konold, S Jo Moore, Susan J Bellworthy and Hugh A Simmons
    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2008 4:14
  4. In scrapie and prion diseases, the knowledge concerning genes involved in host response during the early infection period in the lymphoid tissues, still remains limited. In the present study, we have examined ...

    Authors: Lars Austbø, Andreas Kampmann, Ulf Müller-Ladner, Elena Neumann, Ingrid Olsaker and Grethe Skretting
    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2008 4:12
  5. Several forms of progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) segregate in more than 100 breeds of dog with each PRA segregating in one or a few breeds. This breed specificity may be accounted for by founder effects and ...

    Authors: Thierry Vilboux, Gilles Chaudieu, Patricia Jeannin, Delphine Delattre, Benoit Hedan, Catherine Bourgain, Guillaume Queney, Francis Galibert, Anne Thomas and Catherine André
    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2008 4:10
  6. In the recent past, the introduction of Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV) followed by between-herd spread has given rise to a number of large epidemics in The Netherlands and Belgium. Both these countries are...

    Authors: Gert Jan Boender, Gonnie Nodelijk, Thomas J Hagenaars, Armin RW Elbers and Mart CM de Jong
    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2008 4:9
  7. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of bronchial epithelium to airway inflammation, with focus on mRNA and protein expression of cytokines of innate immunity IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α, in horses...

    Authors: Miia Riihimäki, Amanda Raine, Jamshid Pourazar, Thomas Sandström, Tatiana Art, Pierre Lekeux, Laurent Couëtil and John Pringle
    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2008 4:8
  8. The Gambia has an increasing population of equidae largely used for agriculture and transportation. A review of cases at The Gambian Horse and Donkey Trust (GHDT) indicated that a common reason for presentation i...

    Authors: Gina L Pinchbeck, Liam J Morrison, Andy Tait, Joanna Langford, Lucinda Meehan, Saloum Jallow, Jibril Jallow, Amadou Jallow and Robert M Christley
    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2008 4:7
  9. Estimates of demographic parameters, such as age-specific survival and fecundity, age at first pregnancy and litter size, are required for roaming dogs (i.e. dogs that are neither confined nor restricted) to a...

    Authors: John F Reece, Sunil K Chawla, Elly F Hiby and Lex R Hiby
    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2008 4:6
  10. Mass vaccination of owned domestic dogs is crucial for the control of rabies in sub-Saharan Africa. Knowledge of the proportion of households which own dogs, and of the factors associated with dog ownership, i...

    Authors: Darryn L Knobel, M Karen Laurenson, Rudovick R Kazwala, Lisa A Boden and Sarah Cleaveland
    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2008 4:5
  11. Several studies have shown that a number of serovars of Salmonella enterica may be isolated from wild birds, and it has been suggested that wild birds may play a role in the epidemiology of human and livestock sa...

    Authors: Laura A Hughes, Sara Shopland, Paul Wigley, Hannah Bradon, A Howard Leatherbarrow, Nicola J Williams, Malcolm Bennett, Elizabeth de Pinna, Becki Lawson, Andrew A Cunningham and Julian Chantrey
    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2008 4:4
  12. The effect of age on the bone mineral density and microarchitecture of the equine radius and tibia was investigated. Fifty-six bones from 15 horses aged four to 21 years were used. There were nine geldings and...

    Authors: A Fürst, D Meier, S Michel, A Schmidlin, L Held and A Laib
    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2008 4:3
  13. The identification of the routes of dissemination of Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157 through a cohort of cattle is a critical step to control this pathogen at farm level. The aim of this study was to identify pot...

    Authors: Mary Murphy, Donal Minihan, James F Buckley, Micheál O'Mahony, Paul Whyte and Séamus Fanning
    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2008 4:2
  14. The acute phase response is the immediate host response to infection, inflammation and trauma and can be monitored by measuring the acute phase proteins (APP) such as haptoglobin (Hp) or serum amyloid A (SAA)....

    Authors: Peter D Eckersall, Fraser P Lawson, Carol E Kyle, Mary Waterston, Laura Bence, Michael J Stear and Stewart M Rhind
    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2008 4:1
  15. Caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) is a disease of small ruminants caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. The pathogenesis of CLA is a slow process, and produces a chronic rather than an acute disease state. Acut...

    Authors: Peter D Eckersall, Fraser P Lawson, Laura Bence, Mary M Waterston, Tamara L Lang, William Donachie and Michael C Fontaine
    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2007 3:35
  16. Caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1) is responsible of systemic diseases in kids and genital diseases leading to abortions in goats. CpHV-1 is widespread and especially in Mediterranean countries as Greece, Italy an...

    Authors: Julien Thiry, Maria Tempesta, Michele Camero, Elvira Tarsitano, Benoît Muylkens, François Meurens, Etienne Thiry and Canio Buonavoglia
    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2007 3:33
  17. Bovine anaplasmosis has been reported in several European countries, but the vector competency of tick species for Anaplasma marginale from these localities has not been determined. Because of the wide distributi...

    Authors: Zorica Zivkovic, Ard M Nijhof, José de la Fuente, Katherine M Kocan and Frans Jongejan
    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2007 3:32
  18. The concurrent rise in consumption of fresh chicken meat and human campylobacteriosis in the late 1990's in Iceland led to a longitudinal study of the poultry industry to identify the means to decrease the fre...

    Authors: Michele T Guerin, Wayne Martin, Jarle Reiersen, Olaf Berke, Scott A McEwen, Jean-Robert Bisaillon and Ruff Lowman
    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2007 3:30
  19. Cattle twins are well known as blood chimeras. However, chimerism in the actual hematopoietic progenitor compartment has not been directly investigated. Here, we analyzed fetal liver of chimeric freemartin cat...

    Authors: Mikael Niku, Tiina Pessa-Morikawa, Juhani Taponen and Antti Iivanainen
    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2007 3:29
  20. Dilated cardiomyopathy is a myocardial disease occurring in humans and domestic animals and is characterized by dilatation of the left ventricle, reduced systolic function and increased sphericity of the left ...

    Authors: Anje C Wiersma, Peter AJ Leegwater, Bernard A van Oost, William E Ollier and Joanna Dukes-McEwan
    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2007 3:28
  21. The most predominant beta2-integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1, CD11a/CD18, alphaLbeta2), expressed on all leukocytes, is essential for many adhesive functions of the immune system. Interesti...

    Authors: Philippe GAC Vanden Bergh, Laurent LM Zecchinon, Thomas Fett and Daniel JM Desmecht
    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2007 3:27
  22. The genus Varicellovirus of the Herpesviridae subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae includes a cluster of viruses antigenically and genetically related to bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1): namely bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5...

    Authors: Julien Thiry, Frederik Widén, Fabien Grégoire, Annick Linden, Sándor Belák and Etienne Thiry
    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2007 3:26
  23. The morphopathological picture of a subset of equine myopathies is compatible with a primary mitochondrial disease, but functional confirmation in vivo is still pending. The cationic dye JC-1 exhibits potentia...

    Authors: Dominique Cassart, Thomas Fett, Michaël Sarlet, Etienne Baise, Freddy Coignoul and Daniel Desmecht
    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2007 3:25
  24. Prevention and control of ovine enzootic abortion (OEA) can be achieved by application of a live vaccine. In this study, five sheep flocks with different vaccination and infection status were serologically tes...

    Authors: Andrea Gerber, Ruedi Thoma, Evangelia Vretou, Evgenia Psarrou, Carmen Kaiser, Marcus G Doherr, Dieter R Zimmermann, Adam Polkinghorne, Andreas Pospischil and Nicole Borel
    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2007 3:24
  25. African buffaloes are the maintenance host for Mycobacterium bovis in the endemically infected Kruger National Park (KNP). The infection is primarily spread between buffaloes via the respiratory route, but it is ...

    Authors: Anita L Michel, Lin-Mari de Klerk, Nico C Gey van Pittius, Rob M Warren and Paul D van Helden
    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2007 3:23
  26. The exact role of the lymphoreticular system in the spread of peripheral prion infections to the central nervous system still needs further elucidation. Against this background, the influence of the regional l...

    Authors: Christine Kratzel, Dominique Krüger and Michael Beekes
    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2007 3:22
  27. Performances of different salmonella detection methods were evaluated by applying them to of artificially contaminated faecal specimens from cattle, pigs and poultry. The NMKL71 method, being the standard refe...

    Authors: Erik Eriksson and Anna Aspan
    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2007 3:21
  28. Active surveillance for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in small ruminants has been an EU regulatory requirement since 2002. A number of European countries have subsequently reported cases of atypica...

    Authors: Marion M Simmons, Timm Konold, Hugh A Simmons, Yvonne I Spencer, Richard Lockey, John Spiropoulos, Sharon Everitt and Derek Clifford
    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2007 3:20
  29. Cutaneous mast cell tumours are one of the most common neoplasms in dogs and show a highly variable biologic behaviour. Several prognosis tools have been proposed for canine mast cell tumours, including histol...

    Authors: Rui M Gil da Costa, Eduarda Matos, Alexandra Rema, Célia Lopes, Maria A Pires and Fátima Gärtner
    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2007 3:19
  30. Johne's disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gut caused by infection with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). Symptoms include wasting, diarrhoea, loss of condition and eventual dea...

    Authors: Jennifer A Smeed, Craig A Watkins, Susan M Rhind and John Hopkins
    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2007 3:18
  31. Salmonella Dublin (S. Dublin) is a zoonotic bacterium which is host adapted to cattle. The bacterium can cause subclinical persistent infection in cattle (carriers), which may be reactivated. During reactivation,...

    Authors: Sanne R Lomborg, Jørgen S Agerholm, Asger L Jensen and Liza R Nielsen
    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2007 3:17
  32. Pain of mild to moderate grade is difficult to detect in laboratory mice because mice are prey animals that attempt to elude predators or man by hiding signs of weakness, injury or pain. In this study, we inve...

    Authors: Margarete Arras, Andreas Rettich, Paolo Cinelli, Hans P Kasermann and Kurt Burki
    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2007 3:16
  33. Glomerulonephritis in dogs has been associated with B. burgdorferi infections. In Bernese Mountain Dogs with glomerulonephritis antibodies against B. burgdorferi have been found in most dogs, raising the question...

    Authors: Bernhard Gerber, Simone Eichenberger, Max M Wittenbrink and Claudia E Reusch
    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2007 3:15
  34. Two annual surveys, the abattoir and the fallen stock, monitor the presence of scrapie across Europe. A simple comparison between the prevalence estimates in different countries reveals that, in 2003, the abat...

    Authors: Victor J Del Rio Vilas, Petter Hopp, Telmo Nunes, Giuseppe Ru, Kumar Sivam and Angel Ortiz-Pelaez
    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2007 3:13
  35. We have evaluated a sensitive screening assay for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) complex organisms and a specific assay for detecting Mycobacterium bovis DNA in lymph nodes taken from cattle with evidence of bo...

    Authors: G Michael Taylor, Danny R Worth, Si Palmer, Keith Jahans and R Glyn Hewinson
    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2007 3:12
  36. There are a few works considering the characterization of canine monocyte-derived macrophages as well as a standardized procedure for isolation, culture, and infection of these cells with Leishmania. We have perf...

    Authors: Weverton M Sampaio, Eliane P Moura, Felipe CS Arruda, Raul R Ribeiro, Cíntia F Alves, Ferdinan A Melo, Ana Paula SM Fernandes, Marilene SM Michalick, Maria N Melo, Washington L Tafuri and Wagner L Tafuri
    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2007 3:11
  37. International trade regulations require that countries document their livestock's sanitary status in general and freedom from specific infective agents in detail provided that import restrictions should be app...

    Authors: Lea Knopf, Heinzpeter Schwermer and Katharina DC Stärk
    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2007 3:10
  38. The quantification of gene expression in tissue samples requires the use of reference genes to normalise transcript numbers between different samples. Reference gene stability may vary between different tissue...

    Authors: Duncan Ayers, Dylan N Clements, Fiona Salway and Philip JR Day
    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2007 3:7
  39. Helminth infections in small ruminants are serious problems in the developing world, particularly where nutrition and sanitation are poor. This study investigated the burden and risk factors of gastrointestina...

    Authors: Agricola Odoi, Joseph M Gathuma, Charles K Gachuiri and Amos Omore
    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2007 3:6
  40. Dogs are popular pets in many countries. Identifying differences between those who own dogs or have contact with dogs, and those who do not, is useful to those interested in the human-animal bond, human health...

    Authors: Carri Westgarth, Gina L Pinchbeck, John WS Bradshaw, Susan Dawson, Rosalind M Gaskell and Robert M Christley
    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2007 3:5
  41. Desmoglein 1 (DSG1) is the target protein in the skin disease exudative epidermitis in pigs caused by virulent strains of Staphylococcus hyicus. The exfoliative toxins produced by S. hyicus digest the porcine des...

    Authors: Lise Daugaard, Lars Ole Andresen and Merete Fredholm
    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2007 3:4
  42. Injury to the supraspinous ligament (SSL) is reported to cause back pain in the horse. The diagnosis is based on clinical examination and confirmed by ultrasonographic examination. The ultrasonographic appeara...

    Authors: Frances MD Henson, Luis Lamas, Sabina Knezevic and Leo B Jeffcott
    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2007 3:3
  43. Atypical scrapie is a recently recognised form of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of sheep that differs from classical scrapie in its neuropathological and biochemical features. Most cases are detected...

    Authors: Timm Konold, Andrew Davis, Gemma Bone, John Bracegirdle, Sharon Everitt, Melanie Chaplin, Ginny C Saunders, Saira Cawthraw and Marion M Simmons
    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2007 3:2

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