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Botanical ethnoveterinary therapies used by agro-pastoralists of Fafan zone, Eastern Ethiopia

  • Teka Feyera1,
  • Endalkachew Mekonnen2,
  • Befekadu Urga Wakayo1 and
  • Solomon Assefa3Email author
BMC Veterinary ResearchBMC series – open, inclusive and trusted201713:232

https://doi.org/10.1186/s12917-017-1149-6

Received: 6 February 2017

Accepted: 25 July 2017

Published: 9 August 2017

Abstract

Background

In Ethiopia, plant based remedies are still the most important and sometimes the only source of therapeutics in the management of livestock diseases. However, documentation of this indigenous knowledge of therapeutic system still remains at a minimum level. The aim of this study was, thus, to document the traditional knowledge of botanical ethnoveterinary therapies in the agro-pastoral communities of Fafan Zone, Eastern Ethiopia.

Methods

The study employed a cross-sectional participatory survey. Purposive sampling technique was applied to select key respondents with desired knowledge in traditional animal health care system. Data were gathered from a total of 24 (22 males and 2 females) ethnoveterinary practitioners and herbalists using an in-depth-interview complemented with group discussion and field observation.

Results

The current ethnobotanical survey indicated that botanical ethnoveterinary therapies are the mainstay of livestock health care system in the studied communities. A total of 49 medicinal plants belonging to 21 families, which are used by traditional healers and livestock raisers for the treatment of 29 types of livestock ailments/health problems, were identified in the study area. The major plant parts used were leaves (43%) followed by roots (35%). In most cases, traditional plant remedies were prepared by pounding the remedial plant part and mixing it with water at room temperature.

Conclusion

The various types of identified medicinal plants and their application in ethnoveternary practice of Fafan zone agro pastoralists indicate the depth of indigenous knowledge in ethnobotanical therapy. The identified medicinal plants could be potentially useful for future phytochemical and pharmacological studies.

Keywords

EthnoveterinaryMedicinal plantsLivestock diseasesFafan zoneAgro-pastoralist

Background

Livestock production is an integral part of the Ethiopian agricultural sector that approximately shares 40% of the national agricultural output [1]. Previously, it was reported that Ethiopia has the largest livestock population in Africa [2]. However, due to the prevailing animal diseases, the economic benefits gained from this sector still remain marginal. Animal diseases are among the principal causes of poor livestock performance and cause of high economic losses in the country [3, 4].

Conventional veterinary service is still less developed in the country, which is characterized by lack of adequate animal health infrastructure, veterinary clinics, and veterinarians. Furthermore, most modern drugs are expensive and not affordable to the majority of Ethiopian farmers and pastoralists [5, 6]. The majority of livestock raisers in Ethiopia are far away from the sites of animal clinic stations [7]. These factors make Ethiopian livestock raisers rely on endogenous ethnoveterinary knowledge and practices (mainly botanical products) for the management of diseases of their domestic animals. The traditional remedies are socially acceptable, inexpensive and locally available [8, 9].

However, very little of the ethnoveterinary knowledge of Ethiopian famers and pastoralists in relation to the use of medicinal plants is so far properly documented and analyzed [5, 6, 10]. It is estimated that up to 90% of current livestock diseases are managed through the use of traditional medicines [11]. WHO stated: the use of natural products in control of animal and human diseases are considerably effective [12].

In most scenarios, the traditional medical knowledge in Ethiopia is passed verbally from generation to generation. In addition, valuable information can be lost whenever a traditional medical practitioner passes without conveying his/her knowledge on traditional medicinal plants. Similarly, ethnoveterinary practice in the country is being affected by acculturation and depletion of plants as a result of population pressure, drought, environmental degradation, deforestation and over exploitation of the medicinal plants [13, 14]. Consequently, there is a pressing need to document medicinal plants used and the associated indigenous knowledge by conducting ethnobotanical studies [15, 16].

Compared to the multiethnic cultural diversity and the diverse flora of Ethiopia, the studies conducted on the traditional ethnoveterinary medicinal plants in Ethiopia are very limited [17]. In recent years, few ethnoveterniary surveys have been conducted in different areas of the country [10, 1728]. As it is factual throughout the country, in Ethiopian Somali Regional State (ESRS), ethnoveterinary knowledge is believed to be rich and worth documenting. However, there is gap of information on the level, scope, role and limitations of plant based remedies in the traditional animal healthcare system. Thus, this ethnobotanical survey was initiated in view of documenting the indigenous knowledge associated with utilization of botanical ethnoveterinary therapies for the management of livestock ailments among the agro-pastoralist communities of Fafan Zone, Eastern Ethiopia.

Methods

Study area

The study area covers the Babile district and part of Jigjiga district, found in Fafan zone of ESRS (Fig. 1). The zone is situated in the northern part of ESRS. The total land coverage of the zone is 40, 861 km2, of which the rangeland extends over 36, 629 km2. About 52.6%, 31% and 7% of the landscape of the zone can be categorized as flat to gentle slopes, hills and steep slope, respectively. Fafan zone comprises pastoralism, agro-pastoralism and sedentary production systems. Agropastoralism (95%) is the dominant production system in the zone [29].
Fig. 1

Map of the study area. © User: AlaskaLava / Wikimedia Commons / https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Fafan_Zone.png#filelinks / CC-BY-SA-4.0

The zone geographically lies between 8° 44′ N to 11° 00′ N latitude and 40° 22′ E to 44° 00′ E longitude. The altitude of the zone ranges from 500 to 1650 m above sea level. The mean minimum and maximum temperature ranges from 16 to 20 °C and 28–38 °C, respectively [30]. The rainfall distribution in the zone is very erratic with a mean annual rainfall of 600 to 700 mm [31].

Study design

A cross-sectional, participatory study was employed to collect ethnoveterinary information from traditional healers in Fafan zone of ESRS between April, 2014 and August, 2015. Indigenous ethno-botanical knowledge, resources and their applications were the main study parameters.

Sampling procedure

A purposive snowball sampling technique was used to select study participants i.e. ethnopractitioners. This approach aids in acquiring the desired quality and quantity of information on traditional animal health care systems [32]. Ultimately, a total sample of 24 (22 males and 2 female) key respondents were selected.

Ethnobotanical data collection

Ethnobotanical data were mainly gathered through repeated field trips and investigations, with individual interviews, group discussion, and field observations using the same format used by [33] and [34]. Participant interviews were conducted using semi-structured questionnaires prepared in English and administered in local language (Somali) with the help of competent local translators. Data collected comprise: indications, local name, parts used in traditional remedies, mode of preparation (dosage), and route of administration of each medicinal plant against livestock diseases. Moreover, manner of indigenous knowledge transfer was recorded.

Plant specimen collection and identification

Ensuing interviews with selected key respondents, a field trip was arranged to identify and collect specimen of reported indigenous medicinal plants from their natural vegetation for further botanical identification. Botanical identification of plant specimens was conducted using herbarium materials and taxonomic keys described in various volumes on the Flora of Ethiopia [35, 36]. For each plant species, voucher specimens were given a collection number and deposited in the National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University.

Enumeration of documented plants

A list of plants and plant products traditionally used to manage animal health problems in the agro-pastoralist communities of Fafan zone was documented. The documentation compiled their scientific and vernacular names, family names, disease and ill-health conditions treated, target type of livestock and the preparation forms of different remedies (Table 2). The names of plants were arranged according to their alphabetical order.

Data analysis

Microsoft Excel spreadsheet software was employed for organizing and analyzing the collected ethnobotanical data. Descriptive statistical methods (percentage and frequency) were used to summarize data on reported medicinal plants and associated indigenous knowledge.

Results and discussion

Socio-demographic characteristics and experience of ethnoveterinary practitioners

Majority of the ethnoveterinary practitioners surveyed in Fafan zone were rural residents and males. Other studies have similarily shown that practice of Traditional Medicine in Ethiopia is largely dominated by men [25, 37]. Majority of the participants have been practicing ethnoveterinary medicine for ≥10 years. Ethno-veterinary knowledge of the traditional healers was usually obtained from family members or religious institutions (Islamic madrasas) which are passed through generation with word of mouth (Table 1). The way traditional veterinary medicine is acquired by the practitioners is largely similar to traditional human medicine. The traditional healers claimed that there is a considerable overlap in the utilization of some of the reported herbs against both human and livestock diseases. It was also interesting to note that most of the sampled ethnoveterinary practitioners were also traditional healers for several human ailments.
Table 1

Socio-demographic features and ethnoveterinary experiences of participants (n = 24)

Characteristics

Category level

Frequency

Percentage (%)

Sex

Male

22

91

Female

2

9

Age

25–40

3

12

41–55

9

38

56–70

12

50

Residence

Rural

21

88

Urban

3

12

Educational status

Formal

5

21

Religious

18

75

Illiterate

1

4

Level of ethnoveterinary practice experience (years)

< 10

2

9

10–20

6

25

21–30

10

41

 

>30

6

25

Source of ethnoveterinary healing knowledge

Religious institution

7

29

Family members or decedents

11

46

Close friends and colleagues

4

16

Other senior traditional healers

2

9

Mode of ethnoveterinary service delivery

Always charging

3

12

Sometimes charging

12

50

Free (not charging)

9

38

Documented medicinal plants

The present study showed that the agro-pastoralist communities in Fafan Zone of ESRS use a variety of medicinal plant species to treat a range of livestock health problems. A total of 49 medicinal plants were reported for the treatment of different livestock ailments. The reported medicinal plants are botanically categorized under 21 plant families (Table 2).
Table 2

List of traditional medicinal plants used to treat different livestock ailments among the agro-pastoralist communities of Fafan Zone

Scientific name

Family

Vernacular name

Part (s) used

Indication

Method of preparation and application

Livestock species treated

Voucher number

Abutilon anglosomaliae Cufod.

Malvaceae

Balanbaal

Leaf

Non-specific external wound

Grounded leaves are applied to wound and washed later

All Livestock

TF-05

Abutilon bidentatum Hochst. ex A.Rich.

Malvaceae

Maran

Root

Hyena/Jackal bite wound

Crushed root is applied to affected area

Cattle

TF-25

Leaf

Helminthiasis, Abdominal pain andSnake bite

Decoction drenched orally

Cattle, sheep and goat

Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth.

Mimosaceae

Bilcin

Bark and Root

Retained placenta

Crushed root and bark concocted with Acacia oerfota root is administered vaginally to clean uterus

Camel

TF-06

Bark

Infertility

Bark placed in vagina to kill semen from previous unsuccessful mating

Cattle

Acacia oerfota (Forssk.) Schweinf.

Mimosaceae

Gumar

Bark

Infertility

Bark placed in vagina to kill semen from previous unsuccessful mating

Cattle

TF-34

Sudden sickness

Bark crushed, mixed with water and drenched orally

Camel

Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Galasso&Banfi

Mimosaceae

Madheedh

Gum

Non-specific external wound

Gum is applied to wound topically

All Livestock

TF-39

Adenium aculeatum (Forsk.)

Apocynaceae

Dhalaandhux

Stem/Root

Ringworm

Crushed root or stem dispersed in water is applied to lesions

Cattle

TF-20

Stem/Root

Coughing/Pasteurellosis

Decocted and drenched orally

Goat and Sheep

Adenium obesum (Forssk.) Roem. & Schult.

Apocynaceae

Aboobo wan Aad, Aboobo-gunweyn

Stem

Mange infestation

Inside of the stem which has been fermented for two days is applied to mange lesions

Camel

TF-37

Boscia minimifolia Chiov.

Capparaceae

Meygaag

Bark and Leaf

Bloat

Crushed bark and leaf mixed with water is drenched orally

Cattle

TF-31

Carullum speciosa N.E.Br .

Asclepiadaceae

Udaabeys

Leaf/Stem

Ringworm

Leaves/stem juice is applied to lesions

Cattle

TF-17

Leaf

Eye injury or infection

Powdered leaves mixed with oil is applied locally as ointment

Cattle, sheep and goat

Catha edulis (Vahl) Forssk. ex Endl.

Celastraceae

Jaad, qat

Leaf

Helminthiaisis/Diarrhoea

Crushed leaves mixed with water is used as oral drench or mixed with feed and fed

Sheep and goat

TF-28

Celosia polystachina

Amaranthaceae

laaleys

Leaf

Non-specific external wound

Crushed leaves mixed with oil is applied to wound

Cattle

TF-22

Cissus quadrangularis L.

Vitaceae

Gaad

Aerial part

Tick infestation and external wound

Crushed aerial part mixed with water is applied topically

Cattle and Camel

TF-02

Leaf

Mastitis, Helminthiaisis and Leach infestation

Crushed leaf mixed with water is drenched orally

Cattle and camel

Aerial part

Black leg

Decoction drenched orally

Cattle

Cistanche phelypae L. Cout.

Orobanchaceae

Qoodho-dameer

Leaf and root

Trypanosomiasis

Chopped, mixed with water and drenched orally

Camel

TF-08

Commiphora erlangeriana Engl.

Bursuraceace

Dhunkaal

Bark

Tick infestation

Bark crushed, mixed with water, left overnight and used as wash

Cattle, camel, sheep and goat

TF-03

Commiphora erythrea (Ehrenb.) Engl.

Burseraceae

Xagar

Leaf/Gum

Mange infestation and ring worm

Cooked gum with animal’s urine is applied to the lesion; Leaf and gum burnt and applied to lesion

Camel

TF-14

Commiphora ogadensis Chiov.

Burseraceae

Xagar-madow

Gum

Ringworm

Gum mixed with water is applied to the lesions

Cattle (Calf) and camel

TF-11

Commiphora serrulata Engl.

Burseraceae

Mukh

Leaf

Orf

Leaf concocted with C.drangularis and mixed with animal urine is cooked and applied to the lesions

Sheep and goat

TF-38

Crabbea velutina S. Moore

Acanthaceae

Gheg-maanyo

Leaf

Hyena/Jackal wounds

Grounded leaves applied to wound and washed after three days

Donkey

TF-23

Crotalaria albicaulis Franch.

Fabaceae

Gabal-daye

Leaf

Trypanosomiasis

Leaf extracted withwater and concocted with leaf ofC.phelypaef is drenched orally

Camel

TF-12

Cucumella kelleri (Cogn.) C.Jeffrey

Cucurbitaceae

Afgub, uneexo

Root

Infertility

Root is inserted into vagina with Acacia oerfota to attract bull

Camel

TF-40

Cucumis prophetarum L.

Cucurbitaceae

Qalfoon-idaad

Root

Infertility

Root inserted into vagina with A.oerfota to attract bull

Cattle and Camel

TF-26

Fruit

Swellings

Fruit is made warm and bandaged to affected area

All livestock

Retained placenta

Crushed and used to wash uterus

Cattle, sheep and goat

Cucumis pustulatus Hook. f.

Cucurbitaceae

Qalfoon

Fruit/Seed

Non-specific external wound

Fruit pulp and seed applied to wound

All Livestock

TF-41

Cyphostemma cyphopetalum (Fresen.) Desc. ex Wild & R.B.Drumm.

Vitaceae

Carmo, carmo-waraaboz

Root

Non-specific external wound

Crushed root is applied topically as paste

Cattle, camel, sheep and goat

TF-49

Cyphostemma serpens (Hochst. ex A.Rich.) Desc.

Vitaceae

Carom

Root

Non-specific external wound

Powder of dried and crushed root is applied

All Livestock

TF-10

Dichrostachys cinerea Wight et Arn.

Mimosaceae

Warsamays

Stem

Hyena/Jackal bite wounds

Burned stem is applied to wound

All Livestock

TF-46

Echidnopsis dammaniana Sprenger

Asclepiadaceae

Riyo-dararis

Stem

Lice infestation and Snake bite

Crushed stem mixed with water is used as wash; Crushed and applied to affected area

Cattle (Calf)

TF-45

Entada leptostachya Harms

Mimosaceae

Gacma-dheere

Root

Coughing

Grounded root mixed with water is given intranasal; or mixed with feed and fed

Goat

TF-09

Euphorbia hirta L.

Euphorbiaceae

Caraba-nadh

Latex

Non-specific external wound

Latex/juice is applied to wound

All Livestock

TF-44

Euphorbia longispina Chiov.

Euphorbiaceae

Qabo

Latex

Non-specific external wound

Latex is applied to wound

All Livestock

TF-43

Euphorbia schizacantha Pax

Euphorbiaceae

Qabo-yare

Whole plant

Non-specific external wound

Whole plant crushed, dried and used as powder.

Juice also applied to the affected area

Cattle and camel

TF-42

Indigofera amorphoides Jaub. & Spach

Fabaceae

Meydhax-dheere

Root

Tick and Lice infestation

Crushed (broken) root is applied to ticks/lice

Cattle, sheep and goat

TF-18

Whole plant

Helminthiasis

Decoction drenched orally

Sheep and goat

Ipomoea cicatricosae L.

Convolvulaceae

Weylo-wad

Root

Joint diseases

Crushed root is applied topically

Cattle

TF-48

Jatropha spicata Pax

Euphorbiaceae

Mawe

Root

Non-specific external wound

Crushed root is applied topically to wound

All livestock

TF-15

Seed

Indigestion (impaction)

Seed decocted and drenched orally

Cattle, sheep and goat

Justica generifolia

Acanthaceae

Buuxiso

Leaf

Non-specific external wound

Crushed leaves is applied to wound

Cattle

TF-32

Kleinia abyssinica (A.Rich.) A.Berger,

Asteraceae

Godor-cad

Rhizome

Sexual impotency

Fresh rhizome is given to bulls to enhance libido

Cattle

TF-35

Lycium shawii Roem. & Schult.

Convolvulaceae

Surad

Root

Non-specific external wound /thorns

Crushed root applied near to site of embedded thorns

Camel

TF-29

Moringa borziana Mattei

Moringaceae

Mawe

Root

Coughing

Crushed root mixed with boiled water is drenched orally

Sheep and goat

TF-21

Pergularia daemia (Forssk.) Chiov.

Asclepiadaceae

Gees-riyaad

Leaf

Non-specific external wound

Leaf juice is applied to affected area

Cattle

TF-16

Psilotrichum gnaphalobryum (Hochst) Schintz

Amaranthaceae

Booga-dhaye

Leaf

Non-specific external wound

Crushed leaves concocted with Ipomoea cicatricosae is applied to wound

Donkey

TF-47

Pupalia lappcea L. Juss.

Amaranthaceae

Maro-boob, dhegmaanyo

Leaf, fruit or root

Retained placenta, painful joints and wound

Juice or paste is applied to lesion or affected area

Cattle, sheep and goat

TF-04

Salvadora persica L.

Salvadoraceae

Caday

Root

Non-specific external wound

Crushed root is applied topically

Cattle

TF-27

Sarcostemma andongense

Hiern

Asclepiadaceae

Xangey-dhurwaa

Leaf

Snake bite

Leaf juice is applied orally

All livestock

TF-30

Schinus molle L.

Anacardiace

Mirmiri

Leaf

Tick infestation

Crushed leaves rubbed on to ticks

Cattle and sheep

TF-01

Leaf

Eye injury/infection

Leaf Juice is applied topically

Cattle and sheep

Bark

Helminthiasis

Water extract of the bark is applied orally

Sheep and goat

Seddera pedunculataae (Balf.f.) Verdc

Convulvolaceae

Nagadh

Whole plant

Dermatophilosis (skin infection)

Crushed whole plant is applied topically

Cattle and camel

TF-33

Solanium dubium fresen

Solanaceae

Urudhi, Xunboox

Fruit

Non-specific external wound

Fruit juice is applied topically

Camel

TF-36

Solanum incanum L.

Solanaceae

Waniiye, xunboox, kiriiri

Fruit/Leaf

Tick infestation

Fruit/leaf sap concocted with leaf of Schinusmolle is applied on tick infested area

Cattle and camel

TF-07

Seed

infertility

Seed inserted into vagina to attract bull

Cattle

Leaf

Ring worm and swollen joints

Crushed parts extracted in water is applied locally

Cattle and camel

Fruit

Coughing/pneumonia/mastitis

Fruit sap is applied orally/nasally or locally

Goat

Solanum jubae Bitter

Solanaceae

Kiriiri, xunboox

Seeds, fruit, and root

Joint disease and Snake bite

Powder of dried and crushed parts is applied topically to the affected area

Cattle

TF-24

Withnia somnifera (L.) Dunal

Solanaceae

Guryo-fan

Leaf

Urinary abnormalities

Leaf concocted with Cissusquadrangularis and drenched orally

Cattle and camel

TF-13

Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl.

Rutaceae

Geed-dixri

Fruit

Helminthiaisis

Powder of Crushed fruit mixed with water is applied orally as drench

Sheep

TF-19

Data from the present study showed that Mimosaceae (5 species), and Solanaceae, Bursuraceace, Asclepiadaceae and Euphorbiaceae (4 species each) took the superior share of the reported plant families, followed by Vitaceae, Amaranthaceae, Cucurbitaceous and Convulvolaceae (3 species each). In agreement with this study, Solanaceae, Bursuraceace and Cucurbitaceous have also been reported to be dominant families in other parts of the country [25, 3840]. The fact that Solanaceae, Bursuraceace, Mimosaceae, Asclepiadaceous and Euphorbiaceae contributed relatively higher number of medicinal plants might be attributed to better abundance of species in the study area belonging to these families.

Parts used, mode of preparation and routes of administration

This study revealed that the most frequently used part of plants was leaf (43%) followed by root (35%) (Fig. 2). Other parts of the plant reported to be used were fruit (14%), stem (10%), bark (10%), seed, gum, latex, rhizome and aerial parts of the plants. Moreover, the entire plant was used in some cases (6%). In consonant with the present study, studies conducted elsewhere in Ethiopia indicated that leaves were the most frequently used plant part to treat livestock ailments [10, 22, 5, 20]. A study conducted by Poffenberger et al. [41] indicated that collection of leaves for traditional remedies poses no significant threat to the survival of plants in comparison with other parts; such as roots, stem, bark and whole plant. On contrary, harvest involving roots, rhizomes, bulb, bark and stem have a serious threat on the survival of the mother plant in its habitat. In this regard, the present study indicated that root was the second commonly utilized part of the medicinal plant, which shows the presence of high risk on the survival of those reported plants in the study area.
Fig. 2

Proportion of plant parts used for preparation of botanical remedies

In this study, majority (84%) of traditional remedies were prepared using a single medicinal plant. Single plant species based preparations also accounted for majority (65%) of traditional remedies in Afar [5]. However, single plant based preparations were reported at lower frequency from other parts of Ethiopia [22, 42].

In most cases, traditional plant remedies were prepared by pounding the remedial plant part and mixing it with water at room temperature. This is in line with the report of other studies [39, 40]. Some of the plants are prepared and administered in the form of topical route of administration without mixing using water. Topical applications of paste (poultice), sap, and other formulations were reported by other investigators to be common in traditional veterinary practice [18].

Types of livestock and major livestock health problems treated

The therapeutic indication of medicinal plant based remedies in Fafan zone covered all livestock species (Fig. 3) and around 29 distinct disease problems. Medicinal plant remedies were more frequently indicated for diseases affecting cattle and camels, followed by small ruminant and equine diseases. This variation is probably a reflection of the abundance and value of different livestock species in the study area rather than the therapeutic range of medicinal plants themselves.
Fig. 3

Number of medicinal plants used in different livestock categories in Fafan zone, the area

Traditional medicinal plant remedies were prescribed against 29 different types of livestock ailments/health problems (Fig. 4). This study generally revealed that most of the traditional medicines used in the area are used for the management of skin diseases and removal of ecto-parasites. Unspecified wounds were reported to be the indication of majority of medicinal plants (18) (Fig. 4), followed by helminthiasis (6), tick infestation, respiratory disorders characterized by coughing and infertility (5). Out of the 29 animal health problems reported to be treated by ethnobotanical remedies, 15 (51.7%) are treated by only one medicinal plant species.
Fig. 4

Livestock health Problems against which three or more medicinal plants have been prescribed

Conclusions

The study suggests that the agro-pastoralist communities of the study area largely depend on ethnoveterinary medicinal plants for the treatment of different animal ailments. In total, 49 medicinal plants were reported to have been used by the ethnoveterinary practitioners and livestock raisers. Leaf followed by root was the most frequently used plant part in the preparation of ethnobotanical remedies. The identified medicinal plants could be potentially useful for future phytochemical and pharmacological studies. Thus, further studies on biological activity, phytoconstituents and safety profile of the reported medicinal plants is warranted.

Abbreviation

ESRS: 

Ethiopian Somali Regional State

Declarations

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank the Directorate of Research, Publication and Technology Transfer- Jigjiga University for funding this research. The authors also highly acknowledge the contribution made by local administration and the study participants.

Funding

This study was financially supported by Jigjiga University.

Availability of data and materials

The datasets used and/or analyzed during the current study and voucher number of the medicinal plants are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

Authors’ contributions

TF conceived, designed and coordinated the study including the process of earning fund. EM and BUW participated in data collection, analysis and drafting the manuscript. SA finalized and submitted the manuscript for publication. All the authors revised and approved the final manuscript.

Ethics approval and consent to participate

Ethical approval was obtained from the Research Ethics Committee of the Directorate of Research, Publication and Technology Transfer, Jigjiga University, Ethiopia. Only respondents who consented to participate in the survey were asked to share their knowledge and experience on the use of medicinal plants in their communities to manage animal diseases.

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

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Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Department of Veterinary Clinical Studies, College of Veterinary Medicine, Jigjiga University
(2)
Department of Basic Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Jigjiga University
(3)
Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Addis Ababa University

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