- Research article
- Open Access
Efficacy of clarithromycin on biofilm formation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius
BMC Veterinary Research volume 8, Article number: 225 (2012)
Surgical site infections (SSIs) caused by biofilm-forming methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) have emerged as the most common hospital-acquired infections in companion animals. No methods currently exist for the therapeutic remediation of SSIs caused by MRSP in biofilms. Clarithromycin (CLA) has been shown to prevent biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus. This study aims to assess the in vitro activity of CLA in eradicating MRSP biofilm formation on various materials.
Quantitative assay results (P = 0.5126) suggest that CLA does not eradicate MRSP biofilm formation on polystyrene after 4 – 24 h growth periods. Scanning electron micrographs confirmed that CLA did not eradicate MRSP biofilm formed on orthopaedic implants.
By determining the in vitro characteristics and activities of MRSP isolates alone and against antibiotics, in vitro models of biofilm related infections can be made. In vitro data suggests that CLA does not effectively eradicate S. pseudintermedius biofilms in therapeutic doses.
Surgical site infections (SSIs) are an inherent risk of any surgical procedure and can lead to morbidity, prolonged hospitalization, client frustration, frustration of medical caregivers, and increased treatment costs in veterinary medicine  and have been reported as a complication of 0.8% to 18.1% of operations in dogs and cats, depending on the surgical classification [2–4]. They are of particular concern with implanted biomaterials such as orthopaedic implants, suture material, and indwelling medical devices.
Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is an opportunistic pathogen that can be found on the skin or in the ears, oral cavity, intestinal tract or other non-sterile sites of a large percentage of healthy dogs [5, 6]. In addition to being one of the leading causes of SSIs, staphylococci have a tendency to acquire resistance to antimicrobial agents . Of particular concern is methicillin-resistance, which confers resistance to all beta-lactam antimicrobials. Methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) has rapidly emerged in companion animals and MRSP infections are being reported with increasing frequency in veterinary hospitals, becoming a major cause of pyoderma and SSIs in dogs [8–12]. MRSP infections are a tremendous concern in companion animals as they are challenging to eradicate being recalcitrant to traditional antimicrobial therapy, both due to their resistance to beta-lactam antimicrobials and because they typically have also acquired resistance to various other antimicrobial classes . Reasons for the rapid emergence of MRSP are not well understood, however, one potential virulence factor that has received little attention in this bacterium is the ability to form biofilm. A bacterial biofilm is defined as a complex community of microorganisms embedded within a self-produced carbohydrate matrix attached to biological or non-biological surfaces .
Biofilm formation is an important virulence factor of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) implant-associated infections in humans . It has been suggested that bacteria embedded within a biofilm enter a sessile state which is an important defense mechanism . Biofilm-embedded bacteria are encased in a self-produced extracellular polysaccharide layer which protects against host immune responses, shear forces and antimicrobial penetration. Infections caused by biofilm-forming bacteria pose a tremendous challenge and can be difficult to control due to these protective mechanisms. Bacteria living within biofilms may be highly resistant to antimicrobials that are effective against their free-living counterparts as the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for sessile bacteria within biofilms can be 10 to 1000 times as high as their planktonic form [15, 16]. Biofilm formation has been hypothesized as one of the reasons for the emergence of a few successful MRSP clones internationally [17, 18].
Bacterial biofilms may be of particular concern in veterinary orthopaedic surgery associated with implants . Implants are a risk factor for MRSP SSIs  and implant associated infections can be difficult to control—perhaps in large part because of biofilm formation. Therapeutic options available to treat biofilm-associated infections are therefore limited, and removal of infected orthopaedic devices, with the associated morbidity and treatment costs, may be the only viable option . Further development of alternative treatment regimens for biofilm-associated infections is needed.
Clarithromycin (CLA), a macrolide antimicrobial, has been shown to have potent in vitro and in vivo anti-biofilm activity against S. aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa alone and in combination with other antimicrobials, independent of its inherent antimicrobial activity [13, 21–26]. This suggests that CLA could be an option for prevention or eradication of MRSP biofilms. However, biofilm formation (and presumably the factors that regulate biofilm formation) varies between bacterial species, and these factors have not been investigated for MRSP. The objective of this study was to determine the inhibitory effect of clarithromycin on MRSP biofilm formation using a microtiter plate assay.
Bacterial isolate screening
30 epidemiologically unrelated MRSP isolates from dogs from different geographic regions were screened for biofilm production via microtiter plate assay (MPA) . Briefly, overnight cultures were suspended in 5 ml of tryptic soy broth (TSB) supplemented with 1% glucose to achieve a turbidity equivalent to a 0.5 McFarland standard (~108 CFU/ml). 200 μl of each inoculum was transferred in triplicate to a 96-well polystyrene microtiter plate and incubated under aerobic conditions for 24 h at 35°C. Following incubation, the plates were washed three times with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) to remove non-adherent cells and then heat fixed at 60°C for 60 minutes. Adhered cells were dyed with 0.1% (w/v) of crystal violet for 15 minutes and air dried at room temperature. After resolubilization with 95% ethanol, optical density (OD) reading of each well of the microtiter plate was assessed, taken at 570 nm (OD570). Readings of replicates for each isolate were averaged and subtracted from the OD570 reading of the negative control (wells containing uninoculated culture medium). OD570 was used as indication of biofilm production. Isolates were classified as biofilm producers if OD570 was >0.200 and further classified as strong, moderate, weak, or zero biofilm formers based on their final OD570 reading .
Bacterial biofilm evaluation
Twenty MRSP isolates that were CLA resistant by Kirby Bauer disk diffusion and classified as biofilm producers (net OD570 > 0.200) were chosen for further study. Isolates resistant to CLA were chosen to ensure that any impact of CLA on biofilm formation was independent of antibacterial activity. Isolates were further characterized by sequence analysis of the mec-associated direct repeat unit (dru typing), with dru repeats and types assigned by the dru-typing.org database (http://www.dru-typing.org/search.php). The impact of CLA on biofilm was assessed by MPA by comparing biofilm production in tryptic soy broth (TSB) supplemented with 1% glucose and TSB with 1% glucose plus 8 μg/ml CLA, as described above. To assess biofilm formation and the effect of CLA over time a previously screened high-biofilm forming isolate was chosen and 10 biological replicates assessed at 4, 8, 12, 16 and 24 h using the methods described above.
A student’s t-test was performed to compare groups with a P < 0.05 being considered significant. Statistical analysis was performed on commercially available software (SAS 9.2 TS Level 2M3; SAS Institute Inc., N.C., U.S.A).
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to examine the effect of CLA on MRSP adherence and biofilm production on orthopaedic bone screws. Briefly, an overnight culture of a high biofilm producing isolate of MRSP was inoculated into TSB with 1% glucose and TSB with 1% glucose + 8 μg/ml CLA. 316 LVM stainless-steel 20 mm orthopaedic bone screws (Veterinary Orthopaedic Implants, St. Augustine, FL, USA) were added to 5 ml of a 0.5 McFarland standard suspension of MRSP with and without CLA and incubated for 24 hours aerobically at 35°C. The screws were qualitatively evaluated at 4, 8, 12, 16, and 24 h of incubation. Each screw was washed with PBS, fixed at room temperature with 2.5% glutaraldehyde for 24 h and rinsed in Sorensen’s phosphate buffer three times for 15 min each. The screws were post-fixed with 1% osmium tetroxide for 30 min at room temperature, washed in Sorensen’s phosphate buffer twice for 15 min each, passed through an ethanol gradient (50%, 70%, 80%, 90%, and 99.5%), critical-point dried and finally sputter coated with gold. Screws were then imaged using a Hitachi S-570 scanning electron microscope at varying magnification and angles. Images were used to qualitatively assess and preliminarily compare bacterial adherence and the presence of adhered biofilm matrix.
The twenty CLA-resistant isolates had OD570 readings ranging from 0.206 to 2.64 (Figure 1). There were 3 different dru types, corresponding to the two main international MRSP clones (Table 1) . Of the twenty selected isolates 15%, 35%, and 50% were categorized as having strong, moderate, or low biofilm adherence properties, respectively (Table 1). There was no impact of CLA on MRSP biofilm formation on polystyrene, with a mean OD570 +/− SD of the 20 MRSP isolates with and without CLA of 1.0 +/− 0.63 and 1.1 +/− 0.59, respectively (P = 0.5216). Biofilm formation by high biofilm forming strain, MRSP A12, was evident by 4 hours of incubation and increased over time until 18 h (Figure 2).
Qualitative evaluation of micrographs produced by SEM of surgical 316 LVM orthopaedic bone screws revealed the ability of MRSP to form biofilm on the surface of and between the screw threads. Adherent bacteria were evident by 4 h of infection with exopolysaccaride in variable amounts (Figure 3). Visually, CLA did not appear to inhibit MRSP adherence and biofilm formation. Non-homogenous biofilm formation was evident, with focal biofilm accumulation and circular deposition of biofilm evident on screw heads (Figure 4).
The ability of MRSP to form biofilm may be an important virulence factor and while it is closely related to MRSA, it appears that there are important cross-species differences. While biofilm production was common amongst this collection of MRSP isolates from different major clones and geographic regions, there was no evidence that CLA inhibits biofilm formation, in contrast to previous reports on MRSA [13, 22, 23]. Accordingly, results do not support the use of CLA for prevention of biofilm formation, and since there was no significant impact on biofilm formation regardless of classification, it is unlikely that CLA would have any impact on biofilm eradication.
CLA resistant strains of MRSP were chosen for this study to ensure that any impact of CLA was from its anti-biofilm effect, not simply from inhibition of bacterial growth. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute interpretive breakpoint for clarithromycin resistance (≥ 8 μg/ml)  was chosen to represent a breakpoint concentration that is readily achieved through in vitro studies. One cannot exclude the possibility that an impact might have been present with higher concentrations of CLA, but the clinical relevance would be questionable.
The mechanism of biofilm prevention by macrolides seen in MRSA and other bacteria is not completely understood but current studies speculate that they also act through modification of the immune system’s inflammatory response to infection, and/or through a direct effect on bacterial virulence [24, 26, 31]. For this reason it cannot be excluded that CLA may be effective in vivo, however in vitro studies involving MRSA still support a preventative effect on biofilm formation . It has also previously been shown that macrolide antibiotics affect quorum sensing—the initial mechanism behind bacterial biofilm formation and cell-cell communication—within the biofilm leading to reduced polysaccharide synthesis and instability of biofilm architecture [20, 25, 32].
It is possible that CLA does not impose a preventative biofilm forming mechanism on MRSP, as seen in MRSA, due to genetic variances not yet revealed between the two species. Currently, ica is considered to be the major operon responsible for staphylococcal biofilm formation  but its study in MRSP strains has not been performed. Alternative pathways for quorum sensing could also cause the mitigation of the previously demonstrated effect of macrolides. Dru typing results suggest a varying geographic distribution and representative chosen isolate population across the two current internationally predominant MRSP strains, ST68 and ST71 (Table 1) . From this we can infer that genetic differences and therefore the effect of CLA on different strains of MRSP are likely minimal.
Time assessed biofilm development, while only one isolate was studied, suggests that biofilm formation occurs rapidly in vitro, since adherent bacteria and exopolysaccaride matrix were evident within 4 h by both the crystal violet MPA and through qualitative SEM evaluation of growth on surgical screws. Objective assessment of the impact of CLA on biofilm formation on screws was not possible since only one isolate was studied in a qualitative manner, yet these subjective data are in support of the crystal violet MPA and provide further evidence of a lack of efficacy of CLA for prevention of biofilm formation. The irregular biofilm patterns on screws, most notably the circular biofilm accumulations on screw heads, is consistent with preferential biofilm adhesion to invisible surface defects or irregularities in the machining process. This suggests that minor surface alterations, either from inherent defects or damage to implants during placement, could facilitate biofilm attachment in vivo.
In vitro evaluations of CLA on MRSP biofilm formation were performed on polystyrene and one orthopedically relevant biomaterial providing potential limitations to this study. Although no significant inhibitory effect of CLA on these materials was found, material properties of biofilm attachment sites could play a minor role in the susceptibility to and persistence of staphylococci infections . Combinational therapy with CLA and varying antimicrobials has also been shown to have appreciable effects against MRSA biofilm formation [13, 22, 23]. Because of the potential benefit to biofilm formation prevention and the safety of macrolides shown in long-term randomized macrolide therapy, further study and use of CLA in combinational therapy and on varying biomaterials is recommended .
Large variances in both the amount of bacteria and antimicrobial in suspension in the 200 μl sample before addition to the microtiter plate could add to uncertainty in crystal violet microtiter plate assay results as previously described . Optical determination of 0.5 McFarland and quick doubling-time of S. pseudintermedius could also contribute to the large standard deviations found for each averaged isolate OD570 reading. Microtiter plate washing techniques, as described in Stepanovic et al., also leave room for interpretation and could lead to the removal of transient bacterial biofilms, further adding to the variance in quantitative results for each isolate. Although the two currently most prevalent MRSP strains internationally were represented (ST68 and ST71) other biofilm forming strains of MRSP susceptible to the biofilm prevention mechanism in CLA might exist. Finally, the SEM study only accounts for one of 20 screened isolates across 11 biological replicates. Though the analysis was only for comparison the images are not representative of strains seen in the MPA.
Results suggest that CLA does not inhibit MRSP biofilm formation on polystyrene, independent of the antimicrobial activity when evaluated through a crystal violet assay. Qualitative SEM imaging results also suggest that adhesion and formation of MRSP biofilms begin within 4 h of infection on stainless-steel with no inhibitory effect by CLA. However, CLA may inhibit MRSP biofilm on other surfaces such as titanium based implants. In vivo and additional in vitro studies evaluating the effect of CLA alone and in combination with other antimicrobials on MRSP biofilm formation through crystal violet assays and other biomaterials are warranted.
Weese JS: A review of multidrug resistant surgical site infections. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol. 2008, 21 (1): 1-7.
Vasseur PB, Levy J, Dowd E, Eliot J: Surgical wound infection rates in dogs and cats data from a teaching hospital. Vet Surg. 1988, 17 (2): 60-64. 10.1111/j.1532-950X.1988.tb00278.x.
Nicholson M, Beal M, Shofer F, Brown DC: Epidemiologic evaluation of postoperative wound infection in clean-contaminated wounds: a retrospective study of 239 dogs and cats. Vet Surg. 2002, 31 (6): 577-581. 10.1053/jvet.2002.34661.
Eugster S, Schawalder P, Gaschen F, Boerlin P: A prospective study of postoperative surgical site infections in dogs and cats. Vet Surg. 2004, 33 (5): 542-550. 10.1111/j.1532-950X.2004.04076.x.
Abraham JL, Morris DO, Griffeth GC, Shofer FS, Rankin SC: Surveillance of healthy cats and cats with inflammatory skin disease for colonization of the skin by methicillin-resistant coagulase-positive staphylococci and Staphylococcus schleiferi ssp. schleiferi. Vet Dermatol. 2007, 18 (4): 252-259. 10.1111/j.1365-3164.2007.00604.x.
Griffeth GC, Morris DO, Abraham JL, Shofer FS, Rankin SC: Screening for skin carriage of methicillin-resistant coagulase-positive staphylococci and Staphylococcus schleiferi in dogs with healthy and inflamed skin. Vet Dermatol. 2008, 19 (3): 142-149. 10.1111/j.1365-3164.2008.00663.x.
Stefani S, Varaldo PE: Epidemiology of methicillin-resistant staphylococci in Europe. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2003, 9 (12): 1179-1186. 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2003.00698.x.
Gortel K, Campbell KL, Kakoma I, Whittem T, Schaeffer DJ, Weisiger RM: Methicillin resistance among staphylococci isolated from dogs. Am J Vet Res. 1999, 60 (12): 1526-1530.
Vengust M, Anderson ME, Rousseau J, Weese JS: Methicillin-resistant staphylococcal colonization in clinically normal dogs and horses in the community. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2006, 43 (6): 602-606. 10.1111/j.1472-765X.2006.02018.x.
Weese JS: A review of post-operative infections in veterinary orthopaedic sugery. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol. 2008, 21: 99-105.
Chrobak D, Kizerwetter-Swida M, Rzewuska M, Moodley A, Guardabassi L, Binek M: Molecular characterization of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius strains isolated from clinical samples of animal origin. Folia Microbiol (Praha). 2011, 56 (5): 415-422. 10.1007/s12223-011-0064-7.
Turk R, Singh A, Weese JS: Post-hospital discharge procedure specific surgical site infection surveillance in small animal patients, 2nd ASM/ESCMID conference on methicillin-resistant staphylococci in animals: veterinary and public health implications. 2011, Washington DC, USA
Parra-Ruiz J, Vidaillac C, Rose WE, Rybak MJ: Activities of high-dose daptomycin, vancomycin, and moxifloxacin alone or in combination with clarithromycin or rifampin in a novel in vitro model of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010, 54 (10): 4329-4334. 10.1128/AAC.00455-10.
Jefferson KK: What drives bacteria to produce a biofilm?. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2004, 236 (2): 163-173.
Cohn LA, Middleton JR: A veterinary perspective on methicillin-resistant staphylococci. J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio). 2010, 20 (1): 31-45. 10.1111/j.1476-4431.2009.00497.x.
Ceri H, Olson ME, Stremick C, Read RR, Morck D, Buret A: The calgary biofilm device: new technology for rapid determination of antibiotic susceptibilities of bacterial biofilms. J Clin Microbiol. 1999, 37 (6): 1771-1776.
Osland AM, Vestby LK, Fanuelsen H, Slettemeas JS, Sunde M: Clonal diversity and biofilm-forming ability of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2012, 67 (4): 841-848. 10.1093/jac/dkr576.
Weese JS, van Duijkeren E: Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcus pseudintermedius in veterinary medicine. Vet Microbiol. 2010, 140 (3–4): 418-429.
Costerton JW: Biofilm theory can guide the treatment of device-related orthopaedic infections. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2005, 437 (437): 7-11.
Parra-Ruiz J, Vidaillac C, Rybak MJ: Macrolides and staphylococcal biofilms. Rev Esp Quimioter. 2012, 25 (1): 10-16.
Sano M, Hirose T, Nishimura M, Takahashi S, Matsukawa M, Tsukamoto T: Inhibitory action of clarithromycin on glycocalyx produced by MRSA. J Infect Chemother. 1999, 5 (1): 10-15. 10.1007/s101560050002.
Fujimura S, Sato T, Mikami T, Kikuchi T, Gomi K, Watanabe A: Combined efficacy of clarithromycin plus cefazolin or vancomycin against Staphylococcus aureus biofilms formed on titanium medical devices. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2008, 32 (6): 481-484. 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2008.06.030.
Fujimura S, Sato T, Kikuchi T, Zaini J, Gomi K, Watanabe A: Efficacy of clarithromycin plus vancomycin in mice with implant-related infection caused by biofilm-forming Staphylococcus aureus. J Orthop Sci. 2009, 14 (5): 658-661. 10.1007/s00776-009-1366-3.
Tateda K, Ishii Y, Kimura S, Horikawa M, Miyairi S, Yamaguchi K: Suppression of Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum-sensing systems by macrolides: a promising strategy or an oriental mystery?. J Infect Chemother. 2007, 13 (6): 357-367. 10.1007/s10156-007-0555-2.
Skindersoe ME, Alhede M, Phipps R, Yang L, Jensen PO, Rasmussen TB, Bjarnsholt T, Tolker-Nielsen T, Hoiby N, Givskov M: Effects of antibiotics on quorum sensing in pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008, 52 (10): 3648-3663. 10.1128/AAC.01230-07.
Cirioni O, Ghiselli R, Silvestri C, Minardi D, Gabrielli E, Orlando F, Rimini M, Brescini L, Muzzonigro G, Guerrieri M, et al: Effect of the combination of clarithromycin and amikacin on pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm in an animal model of ureteral stent infection. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2011, 66 (6): 1318-1323. 10.1093/jac/dkr107.
Stepanovic S, Vukovic D, Hola V, Di Bonaventura G, Djukic S, Cirkovic I, Ruzicka F: Quantification of biofilm in microtiter plates: overview of testing conditions and practical recommendations for assessment of biofilm production by staphylococci. APMIS. 2007, 115 (8): 891-899. 10.1111/j.1600-0463.2007.apm_630.x.
Stepanović S, Vuković D, Dakić I, Savić B, Švabić-Vlahović M: A modified microtiter-plate test for quantification of staphylococcal biofilm formation. J Microbiol Methods. 2000, 40 (2): 175-179. 10.1016/S0167-7012(00)00122-6.
Ruscher C, Lubke-Becker A, Semmler T, Wleklinski CG, Paasch A, Soba A, Stamm I, Kopp P, Wieler LH, Walther B: Widespread rapid emergence of a distinct methicillin- and multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) genetic lineage in Europe. Vet Microbiol. 2010, 144 (3–4): 340-346.
Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute: Performance standards for antimicrobial disk and dilution susceptibility tests for bacteria isolated from animals—Third Edition: Approved Standard M31-A. 2008, Wayne, PA, USA: CLSI
Hoffmann N, Lee B, Hentzer M, Rasmussen TB, Song Z, Johansen HK, Givskov M, Hoiby N: Azithromycin blocks quorum sensing and alginate polymer formation and increases the sensitivity to serum and stationary-growth-phase killing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and attenuates chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection in Cftr(−/−) mice. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007, 51 (10): 3677-3687. 10.1128/AAC.01011-06.
Ichimiya T, Takeoka K, Hiramatsu K, Hirai K, Yamasaki T, Nasu M: The influence of azithromycin on the biofilm formation of pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro. Chemotherapy. 1996, 42 (3): 186-191. 10.1159/000239440.
Hudetz D, Ursic Hudetz S, Harris LG, Luginbuhl R, Friederich NF, Landmann R: Weak effect of metal type and ica genes on staphylococcal infection of titanium and stainless steel implants. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2008, 14 (12): 1135-1145. 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2008.02096.x.
Perreten V, Kadlec K, Schwarz S, Gronlund Andersson U, Finn M, Greko C, Moodley A, Kania SA, Frank LA, Bemis DA, et al: Clonal spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in Europe and North America: an international multicentre study. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2010, 65 (6): 1145-1154. 10.1093/jac/dkq078.
This work was supported in part by funding from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC), the Canadian Institutes for Health Research (CIHR), and the OVC Pet Trust Fund.
All authors declare that they have no competing interests.
MD conducted the microtitre plate assay experiments, acquired SEM images and drafted the manuscript. SN, AS, and SW contributed in the conceptual design of the experiments. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
About this article
Cite this article
DiCicco, M., Neethirajan, S., Singh, A. et al. Efficacy of clarithromycin on biofilm formation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. BMC Vet Res 8, 225 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-6148-8-225
- S. pseudintermedius
- Macrolide, Clarithromycin