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Table 3 Effect of Flemingia macrophylla silage (FMS) on rumen ecology and fermentation

From: Strategic supplementation of Flemingia silage to enhance rumen fermentation efficiency, microbial protein synthesis and methane mitigation in beef cattle

Items FMS kg/d of dry mater SEM P-value
0 0.2 0.4 0.6
NH3-N (mg/ml) 19.31 ± 0.12d 18.32 ± 0.13c 17.53 ± 0.11b 16.91 ± 0.08a 0.50 0.001
BUN (mg/dl) 10.11 ± 0.13 10.03 ± 0.21 10.21 ± 0.43 10.03 ± 0.38 0.02 0.83
Total VFA (mM/L) 99.50 ± 4.61a 102.90 ± 4.61ab 107.70 ± 3.52bc 112.50 ± 4.23c 2.82 0.004
VFA (mol/100 mol)
 Acetic acid 73.90 ± 0.67d 73.00 ± 0.36c 71.70 ± 0.94b 70.20 ± 0.98a 0.81 0.001
 Propionic acid 16.50 ± 0.20a 17.70 ± 0.19b 19.30 ± 0.59c 20.90 ± 0.74d 0.95 0.001
 Butyric acid 9.70 ± 0.53c 9.20 ± 0.33b 9.00 ± 0.39ab 8.90 ± 0.26a 0.18 0.002
 Acetic acid to Propionic acid 4.50 ± 0.08d 4.10 ± 0.06c 3.80 ± 0.16b 3.40 ± 0.16a 0.23 0.001
Methane (mol/100 mol) 32.60 ± 0.16d 31.68 ± 0.14c 30.59 ± 0.45b 29.38 ± 0.55a 0.69 0.001
pH 6.82 ± 0.03 6.87 ± 0.02 6.84 ± 0.03 6.89 ± 0.02 0.02 0.13
Protozoa (×105Cell/ml) 8.08 ± 0.07c 6.65 ± 0.05b 4.98 ± 0.07a 4.40 ± 0.09a 0.83 0.009
  1. a,b,c,dMeans in the same row with different superscripts differ (P < 0.01), SEM Standard error of the mean, BUN Blood urea nitrogen, VFA Volatile fatty acid, Methane production=0.45 (acetic acid) – 0.275 (propionic acid) + 0.4 (butyric acid)