Correction to: Antibiotic resistance pattern and virulence genes content in avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) from broiler chickens in Chitwan, Nepal
© The Author(s). 2018
Received: 5 April 2018
Accepted: 13 April 2018
Published: 22 May 2018
The original article was published in BMC Veterinary Research 2018 14:113
The original article  contains errors in author panels and their contributions, errors in both the Methodology and the Results sections, and errors with respect to funding sources. The affected sections of the manuscript and their respective regions of corrected text can be viewed ahead:
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Sample collections, bacterial isolation and identification
Fifty liver samples were collected from 50 colibacillosis suspected broiler chickens which were attended from May 2016 to January 2017 for routine diagnosis at National Avian Disease Investigation Laboratory (NADIL) and Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Agriculture and Forestry University, Rampur, Nepal.
Detection of virulence genes
Primer sets for detection of target virulence genes from avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) isolates
Primer Sequence (5′–3′)
Amplicon size (bp)
A total of 50 E. coli strains were isolated from 50 liver swab samples of colibacillosis suspected broiler chickens. The antibiogram profile of E. coli isolates showed highest resistance to ampicillin (98%) and least resistance to amikacin (16%) (Fig. 1). Out of 50 E. coli isolates, 47 (94%) isolates were resistant to three or more antibiotics. The MAR index analysis showed 94% of E. coli isolates had MAR index value of > 0.2 and 6% had MAR index value of ≤0.2. The proportions of isolates with the MAR index values of 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6 were 12% 20%, 22%, and 20%, respectively. There was no significant association of prevalence of antibiotic resistant strains with the type of E. coli strains (P > 0.05).
Based on the genetic criteria for the pathogenicity, isolates containing at least five virulence genes were considered as the APEC strains and isolates containing less than five virulence genes were considered as the avian non-pathogenic Escherichia coli (non-APEC) strains. Out of 50 E. coli isolates, 45 (90%) isolates were found to be APEC strains and 5 (10%) isolates were found to be non-APEC strains (Table 2). Among 50 E. coli isolates, 7 isolates contained all the eleven virulence genes, 14 isolates contained ten virulence genes, 15 isolates contained nine virulence genes, 5 isolates contained eight virulence genes, 2 isolates contained seven virulence genes, 2 isolates contained five virulence genes, 4 isolates contained 4 virulence genes, and 1 isolates contained 3 virulence genes.
This work was supported financially by Directorate of Research and Extension (DOREX), Agriculture and Forestry University, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal and National Agricultural Research Development Fund (NARDEF), Nepal.
HL, BD and RKB conceived the concept, design, and supervised this study. MS and SP performed experimental work. MS, RKB and HL analyzed data and prepared the final draft of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Reference  in the original article mistakenly omits some author details and as such, the correct presentation of this reference can be seen in reference  of this Correction article.
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