- Case Report
- Open Access
Scrotal granulomatous aspergillosis in a dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius)
© The Author(s). 2017
- Received: 9 March 2016
- Accepted: 25 March 2017
- Published: 29 March 2017
This report describes a case of primary subcutaneous aspergillosis in a 7-year-old neutered male dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius).
The animal developed a large nodular lesion in the right scrotum two years after surgical intervention for neutering. The mass had a firm consistency and was painful at palpation. Histopathology revealed dermal granulomatous inflammation with a necrotic centre, surrounded by plasma cells, macrophages, neutrophils, and sparse fungal hyphae characterised by parallel cell walls, distinct septa, and dichotomous branching. Fungal culture was not performed, but a panel of mono- and polyclonal antibodies specific for different fungal genera identified the hyphae as Aspergillus sp.
The occurrence of subcutaneous lesions is a rare manifestation of aspergillosis in animals, and this appears to be the first case reported in the dromedary camel.
Aspergillus species are ubiquitous environmental fungal organisms . They have been found worldwide in humans, in almost all domestic animals, birds as well as in many wildlife species, causing a wide range of diseases from localized infections to fatal disseminated forms . Invasive aspergillosis in humans is typically associated with pulmonary infection in immunosuppressed patients . However, a number of extrapulmonary localizations has been reported, sometimes in immunocompetent individuals . Cutaneous aspergillosis occurs relatively less frequently, as either primary or secondary infection [3, 4]. Primary cutaneous aspergillosis usually involves sites of skin injury of various nature, while secondary lesions result either from contiguous extension to the skin from infected underlying structures or from widespread blood-borne infections .
In the same way aspergillosis in animals is mainly a disease of the respiratory tract (nasal cavities and lungs in mammals; trachea, lungs and air sacs in birds), although other localizations typical of particular hosts have been recognized (e.g. the guttural pouches and the cornea in horses; the retro-orbital space in cats; the intervertebral disk in dogs) . Cases with cutaneous involvement are hardly found in the literature . The present report describes a case of primary subcutaneous aspergillosis in a dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius).
Because fungal cultures were not performed at the time of surgery, an immunohistochemical study was carried out in order to identify of the organism. Sections of the mass were mounted on adhesive slides and kept at +4 °C until processed. Sections were examined with a panel of mono- and polyspecific anti-fungal reagents applied in various immunohistochemical techniques. In the techniques, primary reagents for immunostaining included genus-specific monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies reacting with species of Aspergillus, Mucorales, Candida, Geotrichum, Fusarium and Scedosporium, respectively [5–7]. The detecting system PowerVision + (Part No. DPVB +110AEC; Immuno Vision Technologies Co. USA) was used for signal-amplification and applied according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Sections were counterstained in Meyer’s hematoxylin for 10 s, and washed for 1 min in tap water and 4 min in distilled water. Finally, sections were mounted with glycerol-gelatin. To ensure specific reactivity of antibodies, sections were run in parallel with sections from laboratory animals experimentally infected with homologous and heterologous fungi. Moreover, in all series of staining, negative controls were run without primary reagents and with substitution of the primary antiserum or monoclonal antibody of identical isotypes, respectively, raised towards nonsense antigens.
This case of aspergillosis appears to be the first with a subcutaneous localization ever reported in the dromedary camel, and represents a rarity with regards to aspergillosis in animals . In the dromedary, Aspergillus has been found associated to post-traumatic buccal infections and osteomyelitis in consequence of mandibular fractures  and to a clinical syndrome with multi-organic involvement, skin excluded . Cases of pulmonary aspergillosis have also been reported in other camelids, such as alpaca , and lama .
Given the localization of the mass, the present case had likely a traumatic origin, represented by the surgical procedure employed to neuter the animal. The subcutaneous tissues exposed during surgery were probably colonized by spores of Aspergillus that induced a slow granulomatous reaction. The granulomatous inflammation with abundant fibrosis is a typical finding of chronic aspergillosis . Reports in human medicine frequently describe a more rapid development of different lesions, represented by erythematous to violaceous papules or plaques that may progress to form necrotic ulcers with a central eschar, pustules and subcutaneous abscesses [14, 15]. However, also infections characterized by subcutaneous chronically slow-growing nodules have been reported . In the present case it is somewhat surprising that two years after surgery the nodular mass grew to only 4 cm diameter and then a further 6 cm diameter in just two months. However, cases with a similar trend have been already described in human medicine. For example Cheetham  reported a patient with a subcutaneous infection by Aspergillus attributed to the inoculation of fungal spores occurred about one and a half year before during a course of penicillin injections. The authors speculated that the fungus lay dormant, or only developed slowly, during the year before lesion was first noted, and that the more rapid development of the mass in the later stages may have been due to the appearance of a mutant more adapted to growth in the body than the original strain . Even more extreme is the case described by Lakhanpal et al. , regarding a 30-year-old male who developed a subcutaneous nodule due to Aspergillus infection over a period of 15 years.
As noted above, cases of aspergillosis with cutaneous involvement are rarely found in veterinary literature. In cats, the occurrence of skin nodules has been reported as the result of contiguous extension to the skin from infected underlying structures (nasal cavity and retro-orbital space) [2, 17]. In other cases, mostly regarding birds, the suspected pathogenesis was more similar to that of our case, i.e. on traumatic base. For example, Abrams et al.  described a case of Aspergillus blepharitis and dermatitis in a Peregrine Falcon-Gyrfalcon Hybrid (Falco peregrinus x Falco rusticolus) likely due to a trauma occurred during hunting. Copetti et al.  reported an outbreak of aspergillosis in some Pekin mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), with the involvement of different organs including the skin. The skin presented multiple elevated, yellowish brown, crusted, multifocal lesions located at the base of the feather follicles in the breast. The infection was attributed to skin trauma incited by the poultry litter . Chute et al.  described a systemic fatal infection by Aspergillus fumigatus in White Rock cockerels, that was attributed to the contamination of the cutaneous incision performed to caponize the animals. Finally, in a case of some chickens, cutaneous aspergillosis was seen with generalized, tumor-like swellings, the infection being limited to the skin .
Primary “traumatic” aspergillosis is a well characterized condition, although rare if compared with pulmonary and systemic infections, in human medicine [3, 4]. Lesions usually develop in cutaneous sites traumatized in course of accidents or burns, but also due to surgery or minor medical procedures (positioning of intravenous catheter, drug injections, use of occlusive dressings and tapes, etc.) . Most of the cases occur in patients with deficiencies in their immunological status of various reasons (AIDS, corticosteroids use, chemotherapy and immunosuppressive therapy used in organ transplants, diabetes, neonatal period and hematological disorders) , although primary cutaneous aspergillosis has been reported also in immunocompetent individuals .
Although culture isolation remains the gold standard for the identification of fungi involved in human and animal infections , many cases are not cultured because a fungal etiology is not suspected when biological samples are sent to the laboratory [5, 6]. Even when submitted, cultures often fail to isolate the fungus responsible of the infection . Despite the lack of culture in the present case, a definitive diagnosis of aspergillosis was upheld by the application of specific immunohistochemical staining techniques.
The authors gratefully acknowledge the Centro di Referenza di Patologia Comparata “Bruno Maria Zaini”. The case was presented as poster at the congress of the European Association of Zoo and Wildlife Veterinarians, Vienna (Austria), 8-11 May 2013.
No funding source has been employed to perform this research.
Availability of data and material
All the data are presented in the paper and there are no additional supporting files.
FES was the mentor and principal advisor and proposed the concept of the study, EB and FTC performed histological examination and diagnosis, HEJ performed immunohistochemical investigation, SP and SM were responsible for the surgical procedure. AP and MP were involved in the drafting and writing of the manuscript. All authors have read, commented and approved the final article.
None of the authors of this paper has a financial or personal relationship with other people or organisations that could inappropriately influence or bias the content of the paper.
Consent for publication
Ethics approval and consent to participate
The surgical procedure was performed after the agreement of the owner.
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
- Paterson DL. New clinical presentations of invasive aspergillosis in non-conventional hosts. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2004;10:24–30.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Seyedmousavi S, Guillot J, Arné P, de Hoog GS, Mouton JW, Melchers WJG, Verweij PE. Aspergillus and aspergilloses in wild and domestic animals: a global health concern with parallels to human disease. Medical Mycol. 2015;53:765–97.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Van Burik JA, Colven R, Spach DH. Cutaneous Aspergillosis. J Clin Microbiol. 1998;36:3115–21.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Perusquía-Ortiz AM, Vázquez-González D, Bonifaz A. Opportunistic filamentous mycoses: aspergillosis, mucormycosis, phaeohyphomycosis and hyalohyphomycosis. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2012;10:611–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jensen H, Schonheyder HC, Hotchi M, Kaufman L. Diagnosis of systemic mycosis by specific immunohistochemical tests. APMIS. 1996;104:241–58.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jensen HE, Salonen J, Ekfors TO. The use of immunohistochemistry to improve sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of systemic mycosis in patients with haematological malignancies. J Pathol. 1997;181:100–5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jung J, Park YS, Sung H, Song JS, Lee S-O, Choi S-H, Kim YS, Woo JH, Kim S-H. Using immunohistochemistry to assess the accuracy of histomorphologic diagnosis of aspergillosis and mucormycosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2015;11:1664–70.Google Scholar
- Choi JK, Mauger J, McGowan L. Immunohistochemical detection of Aspergillus species in pediatric tissue samples. Am J Clin Pathol. 2004;121:18–25.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Al-Dughaym AM, Ramadan RO, Mohamed GE, Fadlelmula A, Abdin-Bey MR. Post-traumatic buccal infection and osteomyelitis associated with mandibular fractures in the dromedary camel. J camel pract res. 2003;10:57–60.Google Scholar
- El-Khouly AB, Gadir FA, Cluer DD, Manefield GW. Aspergillosis in camels affected with a specific respiratory and enteric syndrome. Aust Vet J. 1992;69:182–6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hughes K, Mueller K. Pathologic lesions of mycotic pneumonia in an alpaca following third compartment ulceration. J Vet Diagn Investig. 2008;20:672–5.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Quist CF, Dutton DM, Schneider DA, Prestwood AK. Gastrointestinal ulceration and pulmonary aspergillosis in a llama treated for parelaphostrongylosis. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1998;212:1438–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Copetti MV, Barcelos Ada S, Kommers GD, Santurio JM, Oliveira FN, Lovato M. Cutaneous, respiratory and hepatic aspergillosis in Brazilian white Pekin mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Mycopathologia. 2015;179:321–5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lakhanpal S, Pandhi RK, Khaitan BK, Iyer VK, Bannerjee U. Primary cutaneous aspergillosis in an immunocompetent host. Acta Derm Venereol. 2000;80:74–5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Venugopal TV, Venugopal PV. Primary cutaneous aspergillosis from Tamilnadu diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology. Med Mycol Case Rep. 2012;1:103–6.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Cheetham HD. Subcutaneous infection due to Aspergillus terreus. J Clin Pathol. 1964;17:251–3.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Giordano C, Gianella P, Bo S, Vercelli A, Giudice C, Della Santa D, Tortorano AM, Peruccio C, Peano A. Invasive mould infections of the naso-orbital region of cats: a case involving Aspergillus fumigatus and an aetiological review. J Feline Med Surg. 2010;12:714–23.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Abrams GA, Paul-Murphy J, Ramer JC, Murphy CJ. Aspergillus Blepharitis and Dermatitis in a Peregrine Falcon-Gyrfalcon Hybrid (Falco peregrines x Falco rusticolus). J Avian Med Surg. 2001;15(2):114–20.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chute HL, Witter JF, Rountree JL. O' meara DC. The pathology of a fungous infection associated with a caponizing injury J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1955;127:207–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mohammed MA, Sokkar SM, Batrawi A, Refaie MK, Ahmed AA. Natural and experimental nodular dermatomycosis in chickens. Avian Pathol. 1980;9:185–92.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Galimberti R, Kowalczuk A, Hidalgo Parra I, Gonzalez Ramos M, Flores V. Cutaneous aspergillosis: a report of six cases. Br J Dermatol. 1998;139:522–6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar