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Table 2 Paired sample t-test results for personal and job resources, and work engagement on Time 1 (T1) and Time 2 (T2) in participants and non-participants (Standard deviations in brackets)

From: Effects of a 1 year development programme for recently graduated veterinary professionals on personal and job resources: a combined quantitative and qualitative approach

  Participants Non-participants
  N Means at T1 Means at T2 Effect size N Means at T1 Means at T2 Effect size
Personal resources         
 Proactive behaviour 25 2.89 (.67) 3.18 (.63) −0.4* 10 2.83(.53) 3.15 (.64) −0.5
 Selfefficacy 25 3.37(.79) 3.76 (.43) −0.6* 10 3.73(.34) 3.83 (.39) −0.3
 Optimism 25 3.68 (.85) 3.92(.74) −0.3 10 4.05(.54) 3.92(.54) 0.2
 Reflective behaviour 25 3.51(.82) 3.88(.41) −0.6* 10 3.67(.63) 3.77(.52) −0.2
 Thoughtfulness 25 4.14(.40) 4.18(.63) −0.1 10 3.95(.50) 4.15(.34) −0.5
Job resources         
 Decision latitude 21 2.67(.66) 2.68(.70) 0.0 9 2.96(.72) 2.81(1.03) 0.2
 Decision authority 21 3.00(.69) 3.16(.79) −0.2 9 3.15(.87) 3.52(.50) −0.5
 Skills discretion 21 3.52 (.45) 3.46(.59) 0.1 9 3.59(.60) 3.52(.75) 0.1
 Support colleague 21 4.12(.55) 3.99(.60) 0.1 9 4.17(.35) 4.14(.57) 0.1
 Support supervisor 21 3.70(.97) 3.71(.96) 0.0 9 4.04(.59) 4.04(.73) 0.0
 Feedback from work 21 2.81(.55) 2.76(.73) 0.1 9 2.70(.35) 2.93(.62) −0.5
Work engagement 21 4.48(1.06) 4.61(.85) −0.1 9 4.99(.56) 4.89(.83) 0.1
  1. *p < .05