Halasa T, Huijps K, Osteras O, Hogeveen H. Economic effects of bovine mastitis and mastitis management: a review. Vet Q. 2007;29:18–31.
Bannerman DD. Pathogen-dependent induction of cytokines and other soluble inflammatory mediators during intramammary infection of dairy cows. J Anim Sci. 2009;87:10–25.
Schukken YH, Günther J, Fitzpatrick J, Fontaine MC, Goetze L, Holst O, et al. Host-response patterns of intramammary infections in dairy cows. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2011;144:270–89.
Bannerman DD, Paape MJ, Lee JW, Zhao X, Hope JC, Rainard P. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus elicit differential innate immune responses following intramammary infection. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2004;11:463–72.
Peton V, Le Loir Y. Staphylococcus aureus in veterinary medicine. Infect Genet Evol. 2014;21:602–15.
Strandberg Y, Gray C, Vuocolo T, Donaldson L, Broadway M, Tellam R. Lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid induce different innate immune responses in bovine mammary epithelial cells. Cytokine. 2005;31:72–86.
Günther J, Liu S, Esch K, Schuberth HJ, Seyfert HM. Stimulated expression of TNFα and IL-8, but not of lingual antimicrobial peptide reflects the concentration of pathogens contacting bovine mammary epithelial cells. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2010;135:152–7.
Günther J, Esch K, Poschadel N, Petzl W, Zerbe H, Mitterhuemer S, et al. Comparative kinetics of Escherichia coli- and Staphylococcus aureus-specific activation of key immune pathways in mammary epithelial cells demonstrates That S. aureus elicits a delayed response dominated by interleukin-6 (IL-6) but not by IL-1A or tumor necrosis factor alpha. Infect Immun. 2011;79:695–707.
Yang W, Zerbe H, Petzl W, Brunner RM, Günther J, Draing C, et al. Bovine TLR2 and TLR4 properly transduce signals from Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli, but S. aureus fails to both activate NF-κB in mammary epithelial cells and to quickly induce TNFα and interleukin-8 (CXCL8) expression in the udder. Mol Immunol. 2008;45:1385–97.
Lutzow YC, Donaldson L, Gray CP, Vuocolo T, Pearson RD, Reverter A, et al. Identification of immune genes and proteins involved in the response of bovine mammary tissue to Staphylococcus aureus infection. BMC Vet Res. 2008;4:18.
Günther J, Petzl W, Zerbe H, Schuberth HJ, Koczan D, Goetze L, et al. Lipopolysaccharide priming enhances expression of effectors of immune defence while decreasing expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in mammary epithelia cells from cows. BMC Genomics. 2012;13:17.
Günther J, Koczan D, Yang W, Nürnberg G, Repsilber D, Schuberth HJ, et al. Assessment of the immune capacity of mammary epithelial cells: Comparison with mammary tissue after challenge with Escherichia coli. Vet Res. 2009;40:31.
Hayden MS, Ghosh S. NF-κB in immunobiology. Cell Res. 2011;21:223–44.
Lahouassa H, Moussay E, Rainard P, Riollet C. Differential cytokine and chemokine responses of bovine mammary epithelial cells to Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Cytokine. 2007;38:12–21.
Griesbeck-Zilch B, Meyer HHD, Kuhn CH, Schwerin M, Wellnitz O. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli cause deviating expression profiles of cytokines and lactoferrin messenger ribonucleic acid in mammary epithelial cells. J Dairy Sci. 2008;91:2215–24.
Brand B, Hartmann A, Repsilber D, Griesbeck-Zilch B, Wellnitz O, Kuhn C, et al. Comparative expression profiling of E. coli and S. aureus inoculated primary mammary gland cells sampled from cows with different genetic predispositions for somatic cell score. Genet Sel Evol. 2011;43:24.
Griesbeck-Zilch B, Osman M, Kuhn C, Schwerin M, Bruckmaier RH, Pfaffl MW, et al. Analysis of key molecules of the innate immune system in mammary epithelial cells isolated from marker-assisted and conventionally selected cattle. J Dairy Sci. 2009;92:4621–33.
Fuertes G, Martin De Llano JJ, Villarroya A, Rivett AJ, Knecht E. Changes in the proteolytic activities of proteasomes and lysosomes in human fibroblasts produced by serum withdrawal, amino-acid deprivation and confluent conditions. Biochem J. 2003;375:75–86.
Kulkarni GV, McCulloch CA. Serum deprivation induces apoptotic cell death in a subset of Balb/c 3 T3 fibroblasts. J Cell Sci. 1994;107:1169–79.
Cooper S. Reappraisal of serum starvation, the restriction point, G0, and G1 phase arrest points. FASEB J. 2003;17:333–40.
Muta T, Takeshige K. Essential roles of CD14 and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein for activation of toll-like receptor (TLR)2 as well as TLR4. Eur J Biochem. 2001;268:4580–9.
Tsukamoto H, Fukudome K, Takao S, Tsuneyoshi N, Kimoto M. Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein-mediated Toll-like receptor 4 dimerization enables rapid signal transduction against lipopolysaccharide stimulation on membrane-associated CD14-expressing cells. Int Immunol. 2010;22:271–80.
Janetzki S, Price L, Britten CM, van der Burg SH, Caterini J, Currier JR, et al. Performance of serum-supplemented and serum-free media in IFNγ Elispot Assays for human T cells. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2010;59:609–18.
Kohno T, Kubo Y, Yasui K, Haraguchi M, Shigematsu S, Chua KJ, et al. Serum starvation activates NF-κB Through G Protein β2 subunit-mediated signal. DNA Cell Biol. 2012;31:1636–44.
Kim SJ, Diamond B. Generation and maturation of bone marrow-derived DCs under serum-free conditions. J Immunol Methods. 2007;323:101–8.
Fu Y, Zhou E, Liu Z, Li F, Liang D, Liu B, et al. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli elicit different innate immune responses from bovine mammary epithelial cells. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2013;155:245–52.
Brooks SA, Blackshear PJ. Tristetraprolin (TTP): interactions with mRNA and proteins, and current thoughts on mechanisms of action. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1829;2013:666–79.
Petzl W, Zerbe H, Günther J, Yang W, Seyfert H-M, Schuberth HJ. Escherichia coli, but not Staphylococcus aureus triggers an early increased expression of factors contributing to the innate immune defense in the udder of the cow. Vet Res. 2008;39:18.
Wolf C, Kusch H, Monecke S, Albrecht D, Holtfreter S, von Eiff C, et al. Genomic and proteomic characterization of Staphylococcus aureus mastitis isolates of bovine origin. Proteomics. 2011;11:2491–502.
Jin MS, Kim SE, Heo JY, Lee ME, Kim HM, Paik SG, et al. Crystal structure of the TLR1-TLR2 heterodimer induced by binding of a tri-acylated lipopeptide. Cell. 2007;130:1071–82.
Porcherie A, Cunha P, Trotereau A, Roussel P, Gilbert F, Rainard P, et al. Repertoire of Escherichia coli agonists sensed by innate immunity receptors of the bovine udder and mammary epithelial cells. Vet Res. 2012;43:14.
Smolenski G, Broadhurst M, Stelwagen K, Haigh B, Wheeler T. Host defence related responses in bovine milk during an experimentally induced Streptococcus uberis infection. Proteome Sci. 2014;12:19.
Smolenski G, Haines S, Kwan FYS, Bond J, Farr V, Davis SR, et al. Characterisation of host defence proteins in milk using a proteomic approach. J Proteome Res. 2007;6:207–15.
D’Alessandro A, Zolla L, Scaloni A. The bovine milk proteome: cherishing, nourishing and fostering molecular complexity. An interactomics and functional overview. Mol Biosyst. 2011;7(3):579–97. doi:10.1039/c0mb00027b.
Ibeagha-Awemu EM, Ibeagha AE, Messier S, Zhao X. Proteomics, genomics, and pathway analyses of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus infected milk whey reveal molecular pathways and networks involved in mastitis. J Proteome Res. 2010;9:4604–19.
Grundmeier M, Tuchscherr L, Brück M, Viemann D, Roth J, Willscher E, et al. Staphylococcal strains vary greatly in their ability to induce an inflammatory response in endothelial cells. J Infect Dis. 2010;201:871–80.
Beutler B, Rietschel ET. Innate immune sensing and its roots: the story of endotoxin. Nat Rev Immunol. 2003;3:169–76.
Park BS, Song DH, Kim HM, Choi BS, Lee H, Lee JO. The structural basis of lipopolysaccharide recognition by the TLR4-MD-2 complex. Nature. 2009;458:1191–5.
Lee CC, Avalos AM, Ploegh HL. Accessory molecules for Toll-like receptors and their function. Nat Rev Immunol. 2012;12:168–79.
Sauter KS, Brcic M, Franchini M, Jungi TW. Stable transduction of bovine TLR4 and bovine MD-2 into LPS-nonresponsive cells and soluble CD14 promote the ability to respond to LPS. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2007;118:92–104.
Bannerman DD, Paape MJ, Hare WR, Sohn EJ. Increased levels of lps-binding protein in bovine blood and milk following bacterial lipopolysaccharide challenge. J Dairy Sci. 2003;86:3128–37.
Eichelbaum K, Krijgsveld J. Rapid temporal dynamics of transcription, protein synthesis, and secretion during macrophage activation. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2014;13:792–810.
Akira S, Uematsu S, Takeuchi O. Pathogen recognition and innate immunity. Cell. 2006;124:783–801.
Kim KW, Im J, Jeon JH, Lee HG, Yun CH, Han SH. Staphylococcus aureus induces IL-1beta expression through the activation of MAP kinases and AP-1, CRE and NF-kappaB transcription factors in the bovine mammary gland epithelial cells. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2011;34(4):347–54. doi:10.1016/j.cimid.2011.04.004.
Scheidereit C. IkappaB kinase complexes: gateways to NF-kappaB activation and transcription. Oncogene. 2006;25:6685–705.
Perkins ND. Post-translational modifications regulating the activity and function of the nuclear factor kappa B pathway. Oncogene. 2006;25:6717–30.
Wong ET, Tergaonkar V. Roles of NF-κB in health and disease: mechanisms and therapeutic potential. Clin Sci. 2009;116:451–65.
Takeuchi O, Hoshino K, Kawai T, Sanjo H, Takada H, Ogawa T, et al. Differential roles of TLR2 and TLR4 in recognition of gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial cell wall components. Immunity. 1999;11:443–51.
Kawai T, Akira S. The role of pattern-recognition receptors in innate immunity: update on Toll-like receptors. Nat Immunol. 2010;11:373–84.
Zähringer U, Lindner B, Inamura S, Heine H, Alexander C. TLR2 - promiscuous or specific? A critical re-evaluation of a receptor expressing apparent broad specificity. Immunobiology. 2008;213:205–24.
Bougarn S, Cunha P, Harmache A, Fromageau A, Gilbert FB, Rainard P. Muramyl dipeptide synergizes with Staphylococcus aureus lipoteichoic acid to recruit neutrophils in the mammary gland and to stimulate mammary epithelial cells. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2010;17:1797–809.
Gaestel M, Kotlyarov A, Kracht M. Targeting innate immunity protein kinase signalling in inflammation. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2009;8:480–99.
Gilbert F, Cunha P, Jensen K, Glass E, Foucras G, Robert-Granie C, et al. Differential response of bovine mammary epithelial cells to Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli agonists of the innate immune system. Vet Res. 2013;44:40.
Sanduja S, Blanco FF, Young LE, Kaza V, Dixon DA. The role of tristetraprolin in cancer and inflammation. Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2012;17:174–88.
Gaestel M. What goes up must come down: molecular basis of MAPKAP kinase 2/3-dependent regulation of the inflammatory response and its inhibition. Biol Chem. 2013;394:1301–15.
Yang W, Molenaar AJ, Kurts-Ebert B, Seyfert HM. NF-κB factors are essential, but not the switch, for pathogen-related induction of the bovine β-defensin 5-encoding gene in mammary epithelial cells. Mol Immunol. 2006;43:210–25.
Engelmann S, Hecker M. Proteomic analysis to investigate regulatory networks in Staphylococcus aureus. In: DeLeo FR, Otto M, editors. Bacterial pathogenesis, methods and protocols. Totowa: Humana Press; 2008. p. 25–45.
Goldammer T, Zerbe H, Molenaar A, Schuberth HJ, Brunner RM, Kata SR, et al. Mastitis increases mammary mRNA abundance of β-Defensin 5, Toll-Like-Receptor 2 (TLR2), and TLR4 but not TLR9 in cattle. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2004;11:174–85.
Ulitsky I, Maron-Katz A, Shavit S, Sagir D, Linhart C, Elkon R, et al. Expander: from expression microarrays to networks and functions. Nat Protoc. 2010;5:303–22.