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Table 1 Mean ± standard deviation values of cardiorespiratory parameters, in dogs treated with ketamine (GK: bolus 0.5 mg kg−1; CRI 20 µg kg−1 min−1 in intra- and postoperative periods), fentanyl (GF: bolus 5 µg kg−1; intraoperative CRI 5 µg kg−1 h−1 and postoperative CRI 2 µg kg−1 h−1), or combination of ketamine-fentanyl (GKF: aforementioned doses) in intraoperative period

From: Plasma concentration, cardiorespiratory and analgesic effects of ketamine-fentanyl infusion in dogs submitted to mastectomy

  Anaesthesia (minutes)
Variable Group Baseline 5 15 25 35 45 55 65 75
HR
(beats minute−1)
GK 104 ± 13 129 ± 27 126 ± 32a 120 ± 42a 123 ± 33a 117 ± 22a 120 ± 16a 113 ± 16a 115 ± 13a
GKF 110 ± 22 87 ± 9 71 ± 8#b 69 ± 6#b 72 ± 16#b 66 ± 14#b 72 ± 24#b 75 ± 16#b 82 ± 16#b
GF 97 ± 35 113 ± 32 88 ± 25ab 57 ± 15#b 58 ± 10#a.b 71 ± 13b 68 ± 15#b 66 ± 11#b 69 ± 12#b
fR
(breaths minute−1)
GK 30 ± 10 17 ± 1# 17 ± 1# 16 ± 1# 15 ± 1# 15 ± 1# 16 ± 2# 16 ± 2# 16 ± 2#
GKF 34 ± 14 17 ± 2# 16 ± 1# 15 ± 2# 15 ± 1# 15 ± 1# 14 ± 3# 15 ± 1# 14 ± 3#
GF 28 ± 4# 20 ± 5# 14 ± 2 15 ± 3# 15 ± 4# 15 ± 2# 17 ± 2# 17 ± 1# 17 ± 1#
MAP
(mmHg)
GK - 75 ± 14 70 ± 16 74 ± 13 90 ± 8a 81 ± 13 78 ± 10 77 ± 11 77 ± 9
GKF - 74 ± 7 72 ± 9 60 ± 14 66 ± 10b 72 ± 12 76 ± 15 77 ± 6 79 ± 9
GF - 73 ± 6 75 ± 8 73 ± 2 81 ± 15ab 89 ± 20 65 ± 40 87 ± 25 74 ± 10
SpO2
(%)
GK - 99 ± 2 99 ± 2 99 ± 2 99 ± 1 99 ± 1 99 ± 1 99 ± 1 99 ± 2
GKF - 98 ± 1 98 ± 1 97 ± 2 97 ± 2 97 ± 2 97 ± 1 97 ± 1 98 ± 1
GF - 99 ± 1 99 ± 1 99 ± 1 99 ± 1 98 ± 2 98 ± 1 98 ± 1 98 ± 1
FE´CO2 (mmHg) GK - 36 ± 6 35 ± 6 34 ± 3 35 ± 4 34 ± 2 33 ± 5 34 ± 5 34 ± 5
GKF - 27 ± 6 31 ± 1 31 ± 1 30 ± 3 32 ± 4 31 ± 2 32 ± 4 32 ± 5
GF - 28 ± 2 30 ± 3 31 ± 4 33 ± 5 32 ± 4 33 ± 5 32 ± 5 31 ± 5
  1. a, b, c Significant difference between group. #Significant difference in treatment with a basal time point. HR Heart rate, fR respiratory rate, MAP mean arterial pressure, SpO2 pulse oximetry, FE’CO2 end-tidal carbon dioxide