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Table 3 16 -point snake bite severity score grading criteria

From: Serial serum creatinine, SDMA and urinary acute kidney injury biomarker measurements in dogs envenomated by the European adder (Vipera berus)

  Score
Respiratory system
• Signs within normal limits 0
• Minimal: Mild tachypnea, consistent with pain response 1
• Moderate: Marked tachypnea and/or slightly increased respiratory effort 2
• Severe: Extreme tachypnea and or respiratory insufficiency/failure 3
Cardiovascular system
• Signs within normal limits 0
• Minimal: Tachycardia consistent with pain, general weakness, hypertension 1
• Moderate: Tachycardia, hypotension with tarsal pulse still palpable 2
• Severe: Extreme tachycardia, hypotension with non-palpable tarsal pulse or systolic blood pressure < 80mmgHg, arrhythmia or cardiac arrest 3
Local wound
• Signs within normal limits 0
• Mild: Pain, swelling, ecchymosis, erythema limited to bite site 1
• Moderate: Pain, swelling, or ecchymosis involving less than half the extremity and may be spreading slowly 2
• Severe: Pain, swelling, or ecchymosis involving most or all of one extremity and is spreading rapidly 3
• Very severe: Pain, swelling, or ecchymosis extending beyond affected extremity (in case of head: extending to the neck) 4
Gastrointestinal system
• Signs within normal limits 0
• Minimal: Abdominal pain, tenesmus, 1
• Moderate: Vomiting or diarrhoea 2
• Severe: Repetitive vomiting, diarrhea, haematemesis, or haematochezia 3
Demeanor
• Bright, alert, responsive (BAR) 0
• Minimal: Quiet, alert, responsive (QAR) 1
• Moderate: Lethargic 2
• Severe: Extreme lethargy, collapse 3
Total Score /16