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Table 1 The summary of rescue, treatment, rehabilitation, release, and post-release monitoring in two severely injured Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus) in the Republic of Korea

From: Treatment of two Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus) with severe injuries and their subsequent release into the wild: a case report

Bear-01
Sex Age Rescue Surgery Recovery Rehabilitation Release
Female 6 years 104 kg, broad muscle necrosis and ruptures of the snared ankle on the right thoracic limb with myiasis (8/9/2017) The elbow disarticulation
(9/9/2017)
1. Small cage (22 days)
2. Indoor room (15 days)
Completely healed around 30 days after surgery
Preparation for returning to nature and behavior assessment in outdoor enclosure (8 days) Jirisan NP
(45 days after surgery; 24/10/2017)
Post-release monitoring (radio-tracking and field survey)
DMD (km) HR for 95% MCP (km2) HR for 95% Kernel (km2) HR for 50% Kernel (km2) Note
The first 30 days: 1.3 ± 1.6
Summer 2018: 1.6 ± 1.8
Autumn 2018: 2.1 ± 2.2
Spring 2019: 1.6 ± 2.3
Summer 2019: 2.8 ± 2.4
Autumn 2019: 1.1 ± 1.6
The first 30 days: 9.4
Summer 2018: 41.7
Autumn 2018: 56.9
Spring 2019: 50.1
Summer 2019: 72.5
Autumn 2019: 82.4
Annual 2019: 68.3
The first 30 days: 56.9
Summer 2018: 138.7
Autumn 2018: 189.9
Spring 2019: 229.6
Summer 2019: 250.1
Autumn 2019: 317.7
Annual 2019: 265.8
The first 30 days: 10.5
Summer 2018: 30.5
Autumn 2018: 53.3
Spring 2019: 64.2
Summer 2019: 67.5
Autumn 2019: 71.6
Annual 2019: 67.8
Parturition of four cubs after releasing into the wild (two in 2018, two in 2020; confirmed by unmanned camera and field survey)
105 kg (confirmed by capturing it with a culvert trap, 10/8/2019)
Bear-02
Sex Age Rescue Surgery Recovery Rehabilitation Release
Male 3 years 110 kg, comminuted fracture of left humerus (8/9/2017) Fixation of two locking compression plates with screws + autologous bone chips + rhBMP-2 (17/5/2018) 1. Small cage (48 days)
2. Indoor room (26 days)
Completely healed around 60 days after surgery
Preparation for returning to nature and behavior assessment in outdoor enclosure (25 days) Jirisan NP
(99 days after surgery; 26/8/2018)
Post-release monitoring (radio-tracking and field survey)
DMD (km) HR for 95% MCP (km2) HR for 95% Kernel (km2) HR for 50% Kernel (km2) Note
The first 30 days: 2.9 ± 2.1
Autumn 2018: 1.9 ± 1.7
Spring 2019: 1.4 ± 2.1
Summer 2019: 3.7 ± 2.5
Autumn 2019: 0.8 ± 1.0
The first 30 days: 36.9
Autumn 2018: 106.7
Spring 2019: 95.6
Summer 2019: 419.6
Autumn 2019: 24.6
Annual 2019: 179.9
The first 30 days: 170.6
Autumn 2018: 215.8
Spring 2019: 247.1
Summer 2019: 1131.1
Autumn 2019: 82.5
Annual 2019: 486.9
The first 30 days: 40.5
Autumn 2018: 59.2
Spring 2019: 53.4
Summer 2019: 213.1
Autumn 2019: 19.2
Annual 2019: 95.2
143 kg (confirmed by winter den capturing, 26/2/2018)
165 kg (confirmed by winter den capturing, 27/2/2019)
  1. Abbreviations: NP National Park; DMD daily movement distance as the straight-line distance between consecutive 2 days; HR home range; MCP minimum convex polygons; rhBMP-2, synthetic hydroxyapatites, and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2. Spring, summer, and autumn are March to June, June to August, and September to November, respectively. The DMD was presented as mean ± standard deviation