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Table 1 The effect of inclusion of safflower oil and vitamin C in the broiler chicken diet on the growth performance

From: Changes in the growth, ileal digestibility, intestinal histology, behavior, fatty acid composition of the breast muscles, and blood biochemical parameters of broiler chickens by dietary inclusion of safflower oil and vitamin C

Item Vitamin C level (mg/kg diet) Safflower oil level (gm/kg diet) Vitamin C × Safflower oil SEM P-value
0 400 0 5 10 0Vit.C+ 0Saff. Oil 0Vit.C + 5 Saff. Oil 0Vit.C+ 10 Saff. Oil 400Vit.C+
0Saff. Oil
400Vit.C+
5 Saff. Oil
400Vit.C+
10Saff. Oil
  Vit. C Saff. oil Vit. C x Saff. oil
Int.wt(g) 57.44 58.24 57.45 58.33 58.74 57.56 58.33 58.88 57.78 58.33 58.61 0.19 0.96 0 .07 0.42
Starter period
 BW (g) 203.06b 222.31a 201.67 219.86 216.52 181.13b 219.16a 208.89a 222.22a 220.55a 224.16a 4.38 0.02 0.20 <  0.01
 BWG(g) 145.61b 164.07a 144.22 161.52 157.77 122.91b 160.83a 150a 164.44a 162.22a 165.55a 4.35 0.02 0.21 0.008
 FI(g) 212.81b 230.20a 207.67 228.47 228.38 188.23b 227.66a 222.55a 227.11a 229.28a 234.22a 4.42 .045 0.07 0.007
 FCR 1.46 1.40 1.43 1.42 1.45 1.52 1.41 1.48 1.38 1.42 1.41 0.01 .079 0.75 0.29
Grower period
 BW(g) 775.92 818.14 757.22b 820.41a 813.47a 718.89b 807.50a 801.39a 795.55a 833.33a 825.55a 11.36 0.06 0.03 0.02
 BWG(g) 572.86 595.83 555.54b 600.55a 596.94a 537.75b 588.33a 592.5a 573.33ab 612.77a 601.39ab 7.87 0.15 0.02 0.06
 FI(g) 945.38 962.42 870.41b 976.83a 1014.45a 835.33c 965.35ab 1035.45a 905.49bc 988.31ab 993.44ab 19.022 0.66 <  0.01 <  0.01
 FCR 1.64 1.61 1.56 1.62 1.70 1.55 1.64 1.74 1.58 1.61 1.66 0.02 0.61 0.11 0.42
Finisher period
 BW(g) 1793.38 1900.68 1717.07b 1903.96a 1920.06a 1586.22b 1904.66a 1889.26a 1847.93a 1903.26a 1950.86a 31.06 0.08 <  0.01 0.00
 BWG(g) 1017.45 1082.54 959.85b 1083.54a 1106.59a 867.33b 1097.16a 1087.87a 1052.37a 1069.93a 1125.31a 21.70 0.13 <  0.01 0.00
 FI(g) 1799.01 1877.50 1747.26 1885.55 1881.94 1691.74 1863.88 1841.38 1802.78 1907.22 1922.5 30.65 0.21 0.10 0.29
 FCR 1.78 1.73 1.83 1.74 1.70 1.95 1.69 1.69 1.71 1.78 1.70 0.03 0.50 0.25 0.14
Overall performance
 FBW(g) 1793.38 1900.68 1717.07b 1903.96a 1920.06a 1586.22b 1904.66a 1889.26a 1847.93a 1903.26a 1950.86a 31.06 0.08 <  0.01 <  0.01
 BWG(g) 1735.12 1842.44 1659.40b 1861.31a 1845.63a 1528.66b 1846.33a 1830.38a 1790.15a 1844.93a 1892.25a 30.96 0.08 <  0.01 <  0.01
 FI(g) 2957.20 3070.12 2825.34b 3090.86a 3124.78a 2715.31b 3056.90a 3099.39a 2935.38a 3124.81a 3150.17a 49.30 0.26 0.01 <  0.01
 FCR 1.70 1.66 1.70 1.67 1.68 1.77 1.65 1.69 1.63 1.69 1.66 0.02 0.32 0.83 0.53
 RGR 187.33b 188.09a 186.93b 188.11a 188.10a 185.99b 188.11a 187.90a 187.87a 188.10a 188.30a 0.19 0.05 0.01 <  0.01
  1. a, b, c Means within the same row carrying different superscripts are significantly different (P <  0.05). BW body weight, BWG body weight gain, FI feed intake, FCR feed conversion ratio, PER protein efficiency ratio, RGR relative growth rate
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