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Table 9 The number and percentage of working farm dogs with reported musculoskeletal abnormalities in the front quarters, and the number and percentage of dogs with musculoskeletal abnormalities that were also lame in the front quarters. Data were collected from 641 working farm dogs that were enrolled in TeamMate. Types of clinical abnormalities that were recorded in fewer than 10 dogs are combined and listed as ‘Other’

From: TeamMate: a longitudinal study of New Zealand working farm dogs. I. Methods, population characteristics and health on enrolment

Anatomical location and type of abnormalityNumber of dogsLame front leg(s)
n% (95% CI)n% (95% CI)
 Reduced range of motion152 (1–4)213 (0–31)
 Other91 (0–2)222 (0–49)
 All dogs with shoulder abnormalities234 (2–5)417 (2–33)
 Reduced range of motion112 (1–3)218 (0–41)
 Other254 (2–5)520 (4–36)
 All dogs with elbow abnormalities315 (3–6)619 (5–33)
 Crepitus102 (1–3)440 (10–70)
 Reduced range of motion528 (6–10)1019 (9–30)
 Hard swelling112 (1–3)218 (0–41)
 Other162 (1–4)531 (9–54)
 All dogs with carpal abnormalities6911 (8–13)1522 (12–31)
 Other41 (0–1)00
 All dogs with metacarpal abnormalities41 (0–1)00
Front digits
 Hard swelling142 (1–3)17 (0–21)
 Other162 (1–4)425 (4–46)
 All dogs with front digit abnormalities264 (3–6)415 (2–29)