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Table 3 Blood biochemical parameters in ponies class A, Felin ponies and Polish Koniks compared with so far published reference intervals for various types of horses (according to 1Rossdale & Partners, 2011 [5], 2Hinchcliff & Geor, 2013 [1], 3Latson 2005 [9], Henderson 2013 [10])

From: Variations in haematological and biochemical parameters in healthy ponies

Parametera Ponies class A (n = 73) Felin ponies
(n = 28)
Polish Koniks
(n = 41)
General linear model p-value for the effect of Reference intervals
groups sex ageb group & sex interaction “hot-blooded” horses “cold-blooded” horses American Miniature Horses
ALP [U/l] 185 ± 81
(92–756)AB
149 ± 55
(72–281)A
211 ± 46 (126–358)B 0.036 0.327 0.104 0.424    
AST [U/l] 384 ± 83 (228–648)A 321 ± 50 (233–423)B 395 ± 65 (221–536)A 0.007 0.153 0.770 0.941 234 ± 163 (Clydesdales)2 172 ± 28 (Shire)2 189 ± 332 234 ± 163 (Clydesdales)2 172 ± 28 (Shire)2
GGTP [U/l] 18, 15–21
(8–53)A
20, 18–25 (14–48)A 55, 45–82 (20–198)B < 0.001 0.059 0.055 < 0.001 24.2 ± 6.0 (Shire)2 11 ± 4.42 24.2 ± 6.0 (Shire)2
CPK [U/l] 473, 381–587 (171–1233)A 361, 277–408 (192–609)B 599, 459–769 (306–1137)A 0.001 0.037 0.855 0.059 56 ± 22 (Clydesdales)2
58 ± 12 (Shire)2
273 ± 1362 56 ± 22 (Clydesdales)2
58 ± 12 (Shire)2
TP [g/l] 66.8 ± 4.9 (56–75) 63.9 ± 5.6 (50–75) 66.1 ± 3.7 (57–75) 0.275 0.268 0.182 0.250 72 ± 6 (Clydesdales and Shire)2 66 ± 62 72 ± 6 (Clydesdales and Shire)2
ALB [g/l] 35.6 ± 3.2 (26–41)A 37.8 ± 2.6 (34–46)B 36.1 ± 1.9 (32–41)A 0.003 0.116 0.635 0.684 36 ± 5 (Clydesdales)2
28 ± 3 (Shire)2
  36 ± 5 (Clydesdales)2
28 ± 3 (Shire)2
Urea [mmol/L] 7.0 ± 1.4
(3.8–10.2)
7.0 ± 1.1
(5.1–9.0)
8.2 ± 1.5
(3.8–13.0)
0.812 0.034 0.776 0.019 5.2 ± 1.14 (Clydesdales)2 8.5 ± 1.42 5.2 ± 1.14 (Clydesdales)2
Creatinine [μmol/L] 95.8 ± 16.9 (46.8–130.0) 98.8 ± 16.3 (61.9–137.0) 77.6 ± 17.1 (47.7–116.7) 0.357 0.004 0.983 0.051 151 ± 26.5 (Clydesdales)2 88.4 ± 17.72 151 ± 26.5 (Clydesdales)2
TBIL [μmol/L] 16.9 ± 5.3 (5.3–32.3)A 20.6 ± 6.4 (11.1–37.6)A 12.3 ± 4.6 (4.4–28.7)B 0.001 < 0.001 0.216 0.015    
TG [mmol/L] 0.30 ± 0.15 (0.1–0.8)A 0.42 ± 0.20 (0.2–0.9)B 0.33 ± 0.12 (0.2–0.6)AB 0.029 0.504 0.002
−0.27 (−0.44, −0.10)
0.038    
Glucose [mmol/L] 5.4 ± 0.9
(3.9–8.4)A
5.1 ± 1.1
(3.6–9.1)A
3.8 ± 0.9
(2.2–6.3)B
< 0.001 0.270 0.809 0.138 4.21 ± 1.1 (Clydesdales)2 5.1 ± 0.72 4.21 ± 1.1 (Clydesdales)2
Lactate [mmol/L] 1.1, 0.9–1.4 (0.1–2.7)A 0.1, 0.1–0.1 (0.1–0.9)B 0.1, 0.1–0.1 (0.1–2.6)B < 0.001 0.428 0.157 0.534 234 ± 163 (Clydesdales)2 172 ± 28 (Shire)2 189 ± 332 234 ± 163 (Clydesdales)2 172 ± 28 (Shire)2
  1. ALP Alkaline phosphatase, AST Aspartate aminotransferase, GGTP Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, CPK Creatine kinase, TP Total protein concentration, ALB Albumin concentration, TBIL Total bilirubin, TG Triglycerides
  2. a presented as arithmetic mean ± SD and range in parenthesis except for CPK, GGTP, and lactate which were non-normally distributed and presented as the median, interquartile range (IQR) and range in parenthesis
  3. b standardized regression coefficient with 95% confidence interval (CI 95%) presented if significant
  4. A-B groups marked by different capital letters differ significantly in between-group pairwise comparisons at α = 0.05,