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Table 3 Adenosine deaminase activity in animals with and without inflammatory conditions. Total adenosine deaminase (tADA), and isoenzymes ADA1 and ADA2, obtained in healthy animals and dogs with clinical leishmaniosis, horses with the acute abdominal disease, pigs with lameness and healthy cows before and after calving. Inflammation was assessed by the measurement of ferritin in dogs, serum amyloid A (SAA) in horses, C-reactive protein (CRP) in pigs, and haptoglobin (Hp) and white blood cell count (WBC) in cows. All results are expressed in the median (25th–75th percentiles). Units: IU/L (ADA), μg/L (ferritin), μg/mL (SAA and CRP), mg/L (Hp) and 109/L (WBC). Unpaired Mann-Whitney test was used to compare tADA and isoenzymes results between healthy and diseased animals. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare tADA and isoenzymes results between the two different measurements performed in cows

From: Characterization of total adenosine deaminase activity (ADA) and its isoenzymes in saliva and serum in health and inflammatory conditions in four different species: an analytical and clinical validation pilot study

  Serum Saliva
Dogs Healthy Canine leishmaniosis Healthy Canine leishmaniosis
N = 10 N = 10 N = 10 N = 10
 Ferritin 123.20 (106.60–145.00) 707.20*** (299.80–1483.00)   
 tADA 12.90 (8.60–16.83) 9.05 (7.85–16.25) 4.25 (2.75–5.65) 10.60* (3.55–12.18)
 ADA1 12.12 (7.77–15.60) 8.78 (7.24–14.70) 2.81 (1.78–4.54) 7.49* (2.07–10.15)
 ADA2 1.00 (0.69–1.25) 0.61 (0.42–1.19) 1.16 (0.87–1.61) 2.11* (1.08–3.00)
Horses Healthy Acute abdominal disease Healthy Acute abdominal disease
N = 10 N = 10 N = 10 N = 10
 SAA 1.00 (1.00–1.00) 129.60*** (124.10–230.80)   
 tADA 0.23 (0.16–0.35) 0.43 (0.01–0.90) 46.30 (18.74–61.48) 162.20* (47.00–379.30)
 ADA1 0.15 (0.05–0.20) 0.28 (0.01–0.52) 43.84 (18.26–60.80) 158.60* (42.36–368.80)
 ADA2 0.06a (0.00–0.19) 0.01a (0.00–0.51) 0.90 (0.26–2.50) 5.35** (2.02–10.53)
Pigs Healthy Lameness Healthy Lameness
N = 10 N = 10 N = 10 N = 10
 CRP 6.60 (3.73–13.78) 72.50*** (41.03–101.00)   
 tADA 10.42 (8.34–13.70) 9.61 (6.86–10.47) 495.10 (347.00–823.40) 1829.00** (814.50–2683.00)
 ADA1 8.87 (7.11–12.53) 6.29* (4.07–7.91) 493.00 (346.40–822.40) 1823.00** (811.60–2677.00)
 ADA2 1.40 (0.79–1.91) 2.31* (1.45–4.36) 1.12 (0.55–2.06) 4.33*** (2.36–8.61)
Cows Before calving At calving Before calving At calving
N = 10 N = 10 N = 10 N = 10
 WBC 6.46 (5.76–7.55) 10.41** (9.03–13.58)   
 Hp 0.00 (0.00–5.85) 4.82* (0.00–31.60)   
 tADA 7.14 (6.01–8.21) 8.79* (6.93–13.47) 5.51 (2.93–6.96) 22.40** (13.19–28.61)
 ADA1 7.14 (6.01–8.21) 8.79* (6.93–13.47) 5.20 (2.55–6.57) 22.30** (12.63–28.40)
 ADA2 0.00a (0.00–0.00) 0.00a (0.00–0.00) 0.36 (0.13–0.46) 0.14 (0.02–0.29)
  1. aunder the lower limit of detection of the assay; *: P < 0.05; **: P < 0.01; ***: P < 0.001