Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of the studies included in the review (N = 45)

From: Antimicrobial resistance pattern in domestic animal - wildlife - environmental niche via the food chain to humans with a Bangladesh perspective; a systematic review

Characteristics Frequency (%; 95%CI) Reference
Publication Year
 2005–2010 2 (4.44; 0.05–15.14) [13, 14]
 2011–2014 19 (42.22; 27.65–57.84) [15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32,33]
 2015–2019 24 (53.33; 37.87–68.33) [34,35,36,37,38,39,40,41,42,43,44,45,46,47,48,49,50,51,52,53,54,55,56,57]
Location
 Dhaka 13 (28.88; 16.36–44.31) [13, 14, 20, 22,23,24, 30,31,32, 34, 36,37,38]
 Chittagong 6 (13.33; 5.05–26.79) [15, 21, 39,40,41,42]
 Rajshahi 2 (4.44; 0.05–15.14) [17, 43]
 Mymensingh 10 (22.22; 11.20-37.08) [19, 26, 28, 35, 44,45,46,47, 55, 56]
 Dinajpur 2 (4.44; 0.05–15.14) [27, 48]
 Savar 2 (4.44; 0.05–15.14) [18, 33]
 Kustia 1 (2.22; 0.05–11.77) [49]
 Dhaka + Mymensingh 1 (2.22; 0.05–11.77) [50]
 Chittagong + Rajshahi 1 (2.22; 0.05–11.77) [51]
 Rajshahi + Hakaluki 1 (2.22; 0.05–11.77) [52]
 Gazipur + Savar 1 (2.22; 0.05–11.77) [16]
 Gazipur + Cox’s bazar 1 (2.22; 0.05–11.77) [53]
 Cox’s bazar + Kuakata 1 (2.22; 0.05–11.77) [29]
 Chittagong + Cox’s bazar + Rangamati 1 (2.22; 0.05–11.77) [25]
 Mymensingh + Gazipur + Sherpur 1 (2.22; 0.05–11.77) [54]
 Jamalpur + Tangail + Netrokona + Kishorganj 1 (2.22; 0.05–11.77) [57]
Type of sampling source
 Live bird market 6 (13.33; 5.05–26.79) [13, 28, 34, 39, 54, 57]
 Fish market 2 (4.44; 0.05–15.14) [47, 56]
 Egg market 3 (6.66; 1.39–18.66) [14, 21, 22]
 Dairy farms 3 (6.66; 1.39–18.66) [35, 44, 55]
 Poultry farms 4 (8.88; 2.47–21.22) [16, 18, 19, 33]
 Scavenging/ Household farm/ Backyard/Wild birds 6 (13.33; 5.05–26.79) [17, 25,26,27, 45, 48]
 Water/ River/ Household water 3 (6.66; 1.39–18.66) [32, 43, 52]
 Street food + Ready to eat food + Street food vendor/ Supershop/ Restaurant 8 (17.77; 8.05–32.05) [20, 23, 24, 36, 37, 40, 42, 49]
 Veterinary hospital/ Medical/ Slaughter house and or effluents/dustbins 7 (15.55; 6.49–29.45) [15, 30, 31, 38, 46, 50, 51]
 Wild life 3 (6.66; 1.39–18.66) [29, 41, 53]
Sample Category
 Chicken 10 (22.22; 11.20-37.08) [13, 16,17,18,19, 33, 34, 39, 54, 57]
 Food 5 (11.11; 3.70-24.05) [20, 36, 37, 40, 56]
 Egg 3 (6.66; 1.39–18.66) [14, 21, 22]
 Milk 5 (11.11; 3.70-24.05) [23, 24, 35, 44, 55]
 House crows 2 (4.44; 0.05–15.14) [41, 51]
 Pigeon + Duck + Quail 6 (13.33; 5.05–26.79) [25,26,27,28, 45, 48]
 Brown headed gulls 1 (2.22; 0.05–11.77) [29]
 Open bill stork 1 (2.22; 0.05–11.77) [52]
 Wild ducks 1 (2.22; 0.05–11.77) [17]
 Dog + Cat + Cattle 2 (4.44; 0.05–15.14) [38, 50]
 Deer 1 (2.22; 0.05–11.77) [53]
 House flies 2 (4.44; 0.05–15.14) [46, 47]
 Cockroach 1 (2.22; 0.05–11.77) [42]
 Household water/ effluents/ water 5 (11.11; 3.70-24.05) [15, 30,31,32, 43]
 Currency 1 (2.22; 0.05–11.77) [49]
Pathogen isolated
 E. coli 16 (35.55; 21.86–51.21) [13, 16, 17, 25, 26, 29,30,31,32, 39, 43, 46, 49, 51,52,53]
 Salmonella 13 (28.88; 16.36–44.31) [14, 18, 19, 21, 22, 27, 28, 40, 41, 45, 47, 48, 56]
 Enterobacter 1 (2.22; 0.05–11.77) [33]
 Staphylococcus 5 (11.11; 3.70-24.05) [15, 38, 42, 50, 55]
 E. coli + Salmonella 3 (6.66; 1.39–18.66) [35, 37, 54]
 E. coil + Staphylococcus 1 (2.22; 0.05–11.77) [44]
 E. coli + Salmonella + Staphylococcus 2 (4.44; 0.05–15.14) [34, 36]
 E. coli + Salmonella + Staphylococcus + Vibrio 1 (2.22; 0.05–11.77) [23]
 E. coli + Salmonella + Campylobacter 1 (2.22; 0.05–11.77) [57]
 E. coil + Staphylococcus + Klebsiella 1 (2.22; 0.05–11.77) [24]
 Staphylococcus + Alcalegene + Klebsiella + Enterococcus + Actinobacillus + Proteus 1 (2.22; 0.05–11.77) [20]
Sample category  (N = 48)
 Domestic 6 (12.5; 4.72–25.26)  
 Food 15 (31.3; 18.65–46.25)  
 Environment 14 (29.2; 16.95–44.06)  
 Wildlife 7 (15.6; 6.07–27.76)  
 Insects 6 (12.5; 4.72–25.26)