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Table 1 Signalment and history of all dogs included in the study

From: Changes in renal parameters and their association with subclinical vector-borne infections in Bernese Mountain dogs

  Bernese mountain dogs (n = 197) Control dogs (n = 57) P
Gender
 Female 126/197 (64.0%) 29/57 (50.9%) 0.085
 Male 71/197 (36.0%) 28/57 (49.1%)
age (years)
mean, range
3.9 (0.5–13) 4.5 (1–12) 0.079
weight (kilograms)
(mean, range)
39.64 (25–68) 38.96 (30–67) 0.491
Environment
 Urban 59/197 (29.9%) 17/57 (29.8%) 0.986
 Rural 138/197 (70.1%) 40/57 (70.2%)
Number of walks per week in grassland or forest < 1: 6/197 (3.0%) <  1: 4/57 (7.0%) 0.684
1–3: 67/197 (34.0%) 1–3: 17/57 (29.8%)
>  3: 124/197 (62.9%) >  3: 36/57 (63.2%)
tick exposure
 Never 17/197 (8.6%) 4/57 (7.0%) 0.728
 Rare 57/197 (28.9%) 16/57 (28.1%)
 Occasionally 71/197 (36.0%) 27/57 (47.4%)
 Frequent 52/197 (26.4%) 10/57 (17.5%)
Regular tick prevention (every 6 weeks) 126/197 (64.0%) 32/57 (56.1%) 0.298