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Table 4 Mean (±SEM) and reference ranges of biochemical and antioxidant parameters in Bactrian camels at high altitude

From: Morphometric, haematological and physio-biochemical characterization of Bactrian (Camelus bactrianus) camel at high altitude

S. No. Biochemical parameters Young age
(2–4 years)
Adult age
(5–10 years)
Old age
(11–20 years)
Reference range at low altitude Reference range at high altitude#
1. Albumin (g/dl) 3.3 ± 0.05 3.58 ± 0.08 3.54 ± 0.09 2.8–3.3 3.2–3.9
2. Calcium (mg/dl) 9.56 ± 0.22 9.61 ± 0.13 9.53 ± 0.11 6.4–10.3 9.12–10.05
3. Creatinine (mg/dl) 2.3 ± 0.1 3.0 ± 0.25 3.1 ± 0.18 0.85–2.5 2.2–3.9
4. Alanine aminotransferase (U/L) 14.10 ± 2.65 13.01 ± 1.62 11.6 ± 0.94 8.1–19.5 8.5–20.6
5. Aspartate aminotransferase (U/L) 130.13 ± 15.4 104.8 ± 4.7 134.54 ± 19.2 69.0–98.0 91.5–208.70
6. Triglycerides (mg/dl) 35.63 ± 4.14b 24.77 ± 1.29a 24.47 ± 1.58a NR 18.38–43.65
7. Iron (mg/L) 1.46 ± 0.12 1.25 ± 0.12 1.38 ± 0.17 0.83–1.5 0.8–1.8
8. Magnesium (mg/dl) 2.36 ± 0.08 2.32 ± 0.16 2.33 ± 0.15 1.8–2.3 1.84–2.72
9. Total Protein (g/dl) 5.91 ± 0.09a 6.77 ± 0.14b 6.81 ± 0.23b 5.5–7.0 5.73–7.62
10. Urea (mg/dl) 46.87 ± 6.07 45.4 ± 3.19 51 ± 5.22 15.5–61.26 34.13–66.7
11. Glucose (mg/dl) 67.36 ± 0.49 58.78 ± 3.34 62.62 ± 4.1 NR 45.73–77.8
  Antioxidant parameters
1. DPPH scavenging activity (%) 29.39 ± 5.37 38.78 ± 2.81 33.45 ± 2.95 NR 18.8–49.6
2. FRAP assay (μmol/L) 175.0 ± 16.21 214.5 ± 25.84 209.14 ± 32.61 NR 148.7–337.6
3. Uric acid (mg/dl) 0.13 ± 0.03 0.11 ± 0.01 0.16 ± 0.04 0.3–0.7 0.1–0.3
  1. ‡Reference range taken from Elitok and Cirak, (2018); # Reference range calculated based on present study; NR - Not reported; SEM- Standard Error Mean; a,b - Mean values bearing the same superscripts in a column do not differ significantly (p > 0.05)