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Table 2 Proportions of variance components influencing the individual birth weight of puppies. Comparison of the variance components of a model without covariates (1) and a model with covariates (2). The direct-maternal covariance was held at zero

From: Heritabilities for the puppy weight at birth in Labrador retrievers

Covariate/Variance Model 1 Model 2
Heritability direct 0.21 ± 0.047 0.17 ± 0.041
Heritability maternal 0.22 ± 0.053 0.22 ± 0.049
Dam environmental proportion 0.07 ± 0.034 0.07 ± 0.031
Litter environmental proportion 0.14 ± 0.013 0.08 ± 0.010
Residual proportion 0.36 ± 0.033 0.46 ± 0.032
Total heritability* 0.32 0.28
  1. * \( {h}_T^2=\left({\sigma}_d^2+0.5\bullet {\sigma}_m^2+1.5\bullet {\sigma}_{dm}\right)/{\sigma}_p^2 \)