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Table 3 Diagnostic protocol applied on the considered aborted fetuses

From: Isolation of Arcobacter species and other neglected opportunistic agents from aborted bovine and caprine fetuses

Pathogen Matrix Test and references Animal species
Bovine herpesvirus 1 Lung FATa, PCR [41] Cattle
Bovine herpesvirus 4 Lung FATa Cattle
Pestiviruses Spleen ELISAb, PCR [42] Cattle; Small Ruminants
Brucella spp. Content of abomasum
Pool of organs
Bacteriological [43] Cattle; Small Ruminants
Campylobacter fetus Content of abomasum
Liver
Bacteriological [44], PCR [41] Cattle; Small Ruminants
Chlamydophila abortus Liver PCR [41] Small Ruminants
Coxiella burnetii CNS, Liver, Kidney, Lung PCR [41] Cattle; Small Ruminants
Fungi and yeasts Content of abomasum Bacteriological [45] Cattle; Small Ruminants
Listeria spp. Content of abomasum Bacteriological [46] Cattle; Small Ruminants
Neospora caninum CNS, Liver, Kidney, Lung PCR [41] Cattle
Parainfluenza virus type 3 Lung FATa Cattle
Salmonella sp. Liver Bacteriological [47] Cattle; Small Ruminants
  1. Diagnostic protocol currently applied on the considered aborted fetuses in the IZSPLV laboratory with indication, for each pathogen, of the considered matrix and test used for its isolation and or detection and the considered animal species. CNS: central nervous system; aFAT: fluorescence antibody testing; internal method with polyclonal antiserum conjugated to fluorescein isothiocyanate (Veterinary Medical Research & Development, Pullman, WA, USA). bIDEXX BVDV Ag/Serum Plus, Switzerland