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Table 1 Comparison of serum enzyme and metabolite values across four groups of Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus)

From: Metabolic derangements and reduced survival of bile-extracted Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus)

AnalyteaRRbUnitGroupcnMeanMedianRange
(min-max)
SDd
ALT0–109U/LBE24366.852(7–342)48.78
FNE9546.743(10–304)34.53
ZOO2036.131.5(13–99)20.21
FR2543.441.0(21–98)18.05
ALKP0–121U/LBE22658.234.6(7–1464)110.29
FNE9544.741.0(10–54)22.28
ZOO20124.7118.0(59–154)45.99
FR2549.347.0(15–100)23.28
GGT72–114U/LBE220263.4135(6–2093)320.8
FNE8210663.0(20–720)129
ZOO2023.017.7(7–94)19.20
FR2519.016.0(9–42)8.12
LDH45–510U/LBE186633.8475(228–3608)533.8
FNE6610811101(261–1920)468
ZOO20701.4672.5(384–1064)193.81
FR25902.3851.0(550–1293)202.90
CK70–94U/LBE185351.1125.0(32–9232)979
FNE7117877.0(5–2569)345
ZOO20144.7131.0(63–430)79.83
FR25172.6153.0(67–471)99.41
TBIL0–8.55μmol/LBE2314.41.8(0.1–71.0)7.91
FNE473.42.8(0.3–15.4)2.88
ZOO201.71.7N/A0.00
FR252.11.7(1.7–5.1)0.89
BUN0.8–4.0mmol/LBE2425.54.3(1.3–52.4)5.18
FNE944.94.5(0.8–18.2)2.31
ZOO204.34.5(2.5–6.1)0.94
FR254.33.6(1.1–13.6)2.56
CREA62–221μmol/LBE232132.1124.6(25.5–594.7)56.55
FNE94127.2127.5(48.0–272.3)38.32
ZOO20122.4123.8(79.6–159.1)22.08
FR25107.8106.1(61.9–247.5)38.19
  1. aALT = alanine transaminase, ALKP = alkaline phosphatase, GGT = gamma glutamyltransferase, LDH = lactate dehydrogenase, CK = creatine kinase, TBIL = total bilirubin, BUN = blood urea nitrogen; CREA = creatinine
  2. bRR = reference range [13,14,15]
  3. cBE = bile-extracted, FNE = farm-not-extracted, ZOO = zoo, FR = free-range
  4. dSD = standard deviation