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Table 4 Associations between change in perceptions between the second and third interview occasion, and ASF outbreaks

From: Smallholders’ perceptions on biosecurity and disease control in relation to African swine fever in an endemically infected area in Northern Uganda

Statementa Change in perception between interview occasionsb, c
General biosecurity
 ASFd can not be prevented o/− 0.179
  ASF outbreak second interview occasion 0/− 0.200
  No ASF outbreak second interview occasion -1/− 0.178
  ASF outbreak third interview occasion 0/− 0.217
  No ASF outbreak third interview occasion −0.5/− 0.174
 Improved farm biosecurity improves pig health and pig growth 0/0.098
  ASF outbreak second interview occasion 0/−0.133
  No ASF outbreak second interview occasion 0/0.118
  ASF outbreak third interview occasion 0/0.217
  No ASF outbreak third interview occasion 0/0.082
 Buying live pigs is a risk behaviour for contracting ASF 0/0.226
  ASF outbreak second interview occasion 0/0.400
  No ASF outbreak second interview occasion 0/0.211
  ASF outbreak third interview occasion 0/0.435
  No ASF outbreak third interview occasion 0/0.198
 Frequent selling and buying of pigs is necessary for successful pig farming 0/0.226
  ASF outbreak second interview occasion 0/0.400
  No ASF outbreak second interview occasion 0/0.211
  ASF outbreak third interview occasion 0/0.435
  No ASF outbreak third interview occasion 0/0.198
 I dont want to eat or buy pork from pigs that have died from ASF 0/0.167
  ASF outbreak second interview occasion 1/0.667*
  No ASF outbreak second interview occasion 0/0.124
  ASF outbreak third interview occasion 0/−0.870***
  No ASF outbreak third interview occasion 0/0.308
 If pork prices are lower in the neighbouring village due to them having an outbreak of ASF I will buy my pork there 0/−0.190
  ASF outbreak second interview occasion 0/−0.267
  No ASF outbreak second interview occasion 0/−0.183
  ASF outbreak third interview occasion 0/0.000
  No ASF outbreak third interview occasion 0/−0.215
Control interventions
 If I would get a fair price I would be willing to sell all my healthy pigs when an ASF outbreak occurred in the area 0/−0.133
  ASF outbreak second interview occasion 0/0.133
  No ASF outbreak second interview occasion 0/−0.156
  ASF outbreak third interview occasion 0/0.000
  No ASF outbreak third interview occasion 0/−0.151
 I can choose where to/to whom I sell my pigs 0/−0.583
  ASF outbreak second interview occasion −1/−0.600
  No ASF outbreak second interview occasion 0/−0.582
  ASF outbreak third interview occasion −0.5/− 0.727
  No ASF outbreak third interview occasion 0/−0.565
 I could adopt my pig farming in order to have pigs ready for sale at specific times of the year 0/−0.259
  ASF outbreak second interview occasion 0/−0.133
  No ASF outbreak second interview occasion 0/−0.270
  ASF outbreak third interview occasion 0/−0.391
  No ASF outbreak third interview occasion 0/−0.241
 It is possible for me to tell visitors not to enter in the pig-house with their own boots 0/0.176
  ASF outbreak second interview occasion 1/0.733*
  No ASF outbreak second interview occasion 0/0.129
  ASF outbreak third interview occasion 0/0.091
  No ASF outbreak third interview occasion 0/0.187
Attitudes
 I have lost confidence in pig production 0/−0.161
  ASF outbreak second interview occasion 0/−0.600**
  No ASF outbreak second interview occasion 0/−0.124
  ASF outbreak third interview occasion 0/0.130**
  No ASF outbreak third interview occasion 0/−0.200
 I feel more optimistic about the pig enterprise 0/0.103
  ASF outbreak second interview occasion 0/0.667***
  No ASF outbreak second interview occasion 0/0.056
  ASF outbreak third interview occasion 0/0.000
  No ASF outbreak third interview occasion 0/0.117
  1. * = p = 0.1; ** = p < 0.05; *** = p < 0.01
  2. aStatements with p-values below 0.1 for the change in perception between the second and third interview occasion are displayed
  3. bPerceptions were measured as agreements with given statements according to a Likert-scale with five levels: strongly agree = 5; agree = 4; neither agree nor disagree = 3; Disagree = 2; Strongly disagree = 1. Associations between the magnitude of the change and outbreaks of African swine fever were evaluated using the Kruskal Wallis test
  4. cMedian/mean
  5. dASF African swine fever