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Table 2 Associations between perceptions on general biosecurity and related pig farming actions critical for biosecurity

From: Smallholders’ perceptions on biosecurity and disease control in relation to African swine fever in an endemically infected area in Northern Uganda

Biosecurity statement/action    I think it is possible to protect my pigs from getting ASF by improving biosecuritya, d ASF can not be preventeda I would like to invest in biosecurity if I received advicea Improved biosecurity improves pig health and growtha Buying live pigs is a risk behaviour for contracting ASFa Frequent selling and buying of pigs is necessary for successful pig farminga
Second interview occasionb Third interview occasionb Second interview occasionc Third interview occasionc Second interview occasionc Third interview occasionc Second interview occasionc Third interview occasionc Second interview occasionc Third interview occasionc Second interview occasionc Third interview occasionc Second interview occasionc Third interview occasionc
HHd had expenditure for biosecurity equipment 22 13 4/3.55* 4/3.78 2/2.41 2/2.30 4/3.73 4/3.77 4/3.86 4/4.00 4/3.77 4/3.92 2/2.55 3/3.08**
HH had no expenditure for biosecurity equipment 173 181 4/3.83 4/3.80 2/2.33 2/2.13 4/3.80 4/3.81 4/4.01 4/4.09 4/3.88 4/4.11 2/2.58 2.5/2.83
HH Bought pigs 48 38 4/3.92** 4/3.79 2/2.46 2/2.00 4/3.75 4/3.73 4/3.94 4/4.05 4/3.81 4/4.03 2/2.54 3/2.97
HH did not buy pigs 148 158 4/3.78 4/3.79 2/2.30 2/2.19 4/3.80 4/3.82 4/4.00 4/4.10 4/3.89 4/4.12 2/2.59 3/2.81
HH Sold pigs 127 92 4/3.82 4/3.92 2/2.43 2/1.97 4/3.78 4/3.74 4/3.95 4/4.01 4/3.85 4/4.01 2/2.63 2/2.78
HH did not sell any pigs 62 101 4/3.71 4/3.67 2/2.21 2/2.31 4/3.77 4/3.85 4/4.07 4/4.14 4/3.87 4/4.14 2/2.48 3/2.88
  1. * = p < 0.1; ** = p < 0.05
  2. aPerceptions were measured as agreements with given statements according to a Likert-scale with five levels: strongly agree = 5; agree = 4; neither agree nor disagree = 3; Disagree = 2; Strongly disagree = 1. Associations between perceptions and actions were evaluated using the Kruskal Wallis test
  3. bNumber of respondents
  4. cMedian/mean
  5. dASF African swine fever, HH household