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Table 5 Relative mRNA levels of MyoD, Myogenin, IFG-1, GH, PAX7 and PCNA in the muscle tissues at days 1, 3, 5, 7 post hatch in broiler chicks subjected to different thermal manipulation protocols during embryonic life (ED12–18)

From: Thermal manipulation of the broilers embryos: expression of muscle markers genes and weights of body and internal organs during embryonic and post-hatch days

Post-Hatch days Parameters Groups
Control TM1 TM2 TM3 TM4
Day 1 MyoD 1 ± 0.01a 1.80 ± 0.03b 1.13 ± 0.02a 3.46 ± 0.06c 1.25 ± 0.02d
Myogenin 1 ± 0.01a 0.89 ± 0.02a 0.25 ± 0.02b 0.71 ± 0.02c 0.69 ± 0.02c
IGF-1 1 ± 0.01a 0.63 ± 0.02b 0.44 ± 0.03b 0.39 ± 0.01b 0.62 ± 0.03b
GH 1 ± 0.02a 1.26 ± 0.01b 1.15 ± 0.01c 1.15 ± 0.04c 1.09 ± 0.01c
PAX7 1 ± 0.01a 1.82 ± 0.01b 1.40 ± 0.06c 1.91 ± 0.07b 1.21 ± 0.07c
PCNA 1 ± 0.01a 0.65 ± 0.02b 0.55 ± 0.02b 0.40 ± 0.02b 0.31 ± 0.02b
Day 3 MyoD 1 ± 0.01a 2.46 ± 0.03b 0.82 ± 0.02a 0.65 ± 0.02a 1.22 ± 0.02a
Myogenin 1 ± 0.01a 2.05 ± 0.03b 1.28 ± 0.03a 0.59 ± 0.02a 1.46 ± 0.01a
IGF-1 1 ± 0.01a 2.47 ± 0.06b 0.63 ± 0.03d 0.65 ± 0.03d 1.56 ± 0.03c
GH 1 ± 0.02a 1.73 ± 0.06b 1.01 ± 0.01a 0.04 ± 0.04c 1.55 ± 0.01b
PAX7 1 ± 0.02a 3.29 ± 0.04b 1.55 ± 0.01c 1.46 ± 0.02c 1.99 ± 0.02c
PCNA 1 ± 0.03a 3.18 ± 0.09b 1.05 ± 0.01a 1.03 ± 0.02a 1.63 ± 0.05c
Day 5 MyoD 1 ± 0.02a 0.95 ± 0.03a 0.79 ± 0.03a 0.35 ± 0.02b 0.13 ± 0.01b
Myogenin 1 ± 0.06a 1.45 ± 0.02a 3.49 ± 0.23b 4.36 ± 0.19c 10.54 ± 0.27d
IGF-1 1 ± 0.02 a 1.33 ± 0.05a 0.64 ± 0.03a 0.34 ± 0.01b 0.15 ± 0.01b
GH 1 ± 0.03a 1.37 ± 0.06a 6.77 ± 0.02b 7.27 ± 0.02c 8.50 ± 0.07d
PAX7 1 ± 0.03a 1.11 ± 0.04b 1.51 ± 0.02b 1.17 ± 0.01b 1.15 ± 0.03b
PCNA 1 ± 0.09a 1.33 ± 0.04a 1.31 ± 0.02a 1.69 ± 0.06b 5.01 ± 0.13c
Day 7 MyoD 1 ± 0.04a 1.46 ± 0.11a 1.10 ± 0.03a 1.12 ± 0.04a 2.09 ± 0.06b
Myogenin 1 ± 0.01a 2.04 ± 0.22b 1.28 ± 0.05a 0.05 ± 0.19d 4.63 ± 0.19c
IGF-1 1 ± 0.07a 1.54 ± 0.11b 1.70 ± 0.05b 1.65 ± 0.03b 0.14 ± 0.02c
GH 1 ± 0.01a 2.44 ± 0.15b 1.37 ± 0.07a 1.02 ± 0.20a 5.80 ± 0.10d
PAX7 1 ± 0.03 1.01 ± 0.06 1.18 ± 0.05 1.01 ± 0.01 1.01 ± 0.03
PCNA 1 ± 0.03a 1.65 ± 0.06b 1.28 ± 0.05b 1.01 ± 0.06a 2.56 ± 0.20c
  1. TM: Thermal manipulation; MyoD: Myogenic differentiation gene; IGF-1: Insulin-like growth factor 1; GH: Growth hormone; Pax7: Paired box transcription factor; PCNA: Proliferating cell nuclear antigen. a-d Within the same row, means ± SD with different superscripts differ significantly (P < 0.05)