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Table 3 Summary of the amount of references proving (+), giving an unclear result (?), showing no effect (0) or showing the opposite effect (−) for each criterion investigated for each plant species

From: Medicinal plants as therapeutic options for topical treatment in canine dermatology? A systematic review

Type of reference Calendula Hypericum Matricaria Salvia
in vitro in vivo + clinical in vitro in vivo + clinical in vitro in vivo + clinical in vitro in vivo + clinical
Anti-bacterial + 71   192   113 14 205  
?    16 17     
0    18   39   110  
        
Synergism with antibiotics/ disinfectants +      111   412  
?         
0        113  
        
Anti-fungal + 314   1015   516   717  
?         
0 118   419   320   321  
        
Anti-biofilm +    322     223  
?         
0         
        
Anti-pruritic +     124   325   
?       126   
0         
        
Wound-healing +   827   828   529   
?     130     
0     131     
        
Fibro-proliferative + 332 133   134     
?    235      
0 136    337 238 139   
   240 141     
Fibro-migrative + 242   243      
?         
0      144    
   145      
Collagen-enhancing + 146 247 248 449   150   
?         
0     151     
        
Pro-angiogenic + 252 353   354     
?         
0     355     
   156      
Anti-inflammatory +   157 258 359   360 161 262
?   163   164     
0     265   166   
167        
Anti-erythematous +   168   269   270   271
?       172   
0     273     
        
Anti-edematous +     374   175   176
?         
0     177     
        
Analgesic +     278   279   
?         
0         
        
Beneficial for skin +   280   381   182   
?         
0     183     
        
Hypothesis proven + 284 485 586 1087 288 589 390 191
?       192   
0      193 194   
195        
Total + 20 22 43 40 19 24 37 6
? 0 1 3 3 0 3 0 0
0 2 0 5 14 10 3 3 0
2 0 4 1 0 0 0 0
  1. 1[62, 65,66,67,68,69,70]; 2 [53, 76,77,78, 138,139,140,141,142,143,144,145,146,147,148,149,150,151,152]; 3 [66, 68, 93, 97, 98, 100, 153,154,155,156,157]; 4 [158]; 5 [38, 93, 118, 119, 123,124,125,126, 157, 159,160,161,162,163,164,165,166,167,168,169]; 6 [170]; 7 [171];8 [172]; 9 [102, 103, 173]; 10 [174];; 11 [93]; 12 [93, 117,118,119]; 13 [167] 14 [65, 69, 175]; 15 [76, 79, 139,140,141, 151, 177, 178, 176, 179]; 16 [97]; 17 [120,121,122]; 18 [68]; 19 [78, 138, 152, 170]; 20 [68, 102, 103]; 21 [160, 166, 180]; 22 [79, 149, 150]; 23 [168, 181]; 24 [82]; 25 [35, 37, 104]; 26 [182]; 27 [29, 57,58,59,60,61,62,63]; 28 [31, 32, 82, 84, 87, 88, 183, 184]; 29 [104]; 30 [81];31 [185]; 32 [29, 64, 186]; 33 [29]; 34 [183]; 35 [45, 143];36 [187]; 37 [84, 86, 185]; 38 [64, 187]; 39 [105]; 40 [52, 64]; 41 [87]; 42 [29, 64]; 43 [45, 188]; 44 [64]; 45 [52]; 46 [189]; 47 [61, 62]; 48 [45, 188]; 49 [32, 86, 88, 183]; 50 [105]; 51 [185]; 52 [62, 190]; 53 [29, 62, 190]; 54 [86, 88, 183]; 55 [84, 87, 185]; 56 [191]; 57 [62]; 58 [33, 83]; 59 [33, 84, 85]; 60 [35, 104, 109]; 61 [192]; 62 [55, 193]; 63 [61]; 64 [88];65 [86, 87]; 66 [105]; 67 [189]; 68 [71] 69 [81, 194]; 70 [37, 109]; 71 [55, 193]; 72 [182];73 [88, 92]; 74 [32, 81, 82]; 75 [109]; 76 [55]; 77 [88]; 78 [81, 82]; 79 [104, 113]; 80 [71, 72] 81 [84, 86, 87]; 82 [115]; 83 [92] 84 [29, 50]; 85 [29, 30, 60, 195]; 86 [33, 52, 83, 143, 191]; 87 [31, 81, 82, 88, 92, 171, 185, 194]; 88 [34, 36]; 89 [35, 37, 108, 109, 115]; 90 [39, 120, 192]; 91 [38]; 92 [182];93 [196]; 94 [197]; 95 [189]