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Table 1 Non-cutaneous clinical signs of AFR in dogs

From: Critically appraised topic on adverse food reactions of companion animals (6): prevalence of noncutaneous manifestations of adverse food reactions in dogs and cats

Clinical sign Number of animals (% of all reported non-cutaneous AFR) Strength of evidence
Diarrhoea [9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19, 22,23,24,25,26,27, 32,33,34,35,36,37,38,39,40,41,42,43,44, 47, 48] 391–490a (70–88%) Strong in 36–39a [9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19, 48]
Moderate in 151–189a [22,23,24,25,26,27, 47]
Weak in 204–212a [32,33,34,35,36,37,38,39,40,41,42,43,44]
Vomiting [9, 11, 13,14,15, 17, 18, 22,23,24,25,26,27, 33, 34, 40, 42, 43] 28–115a (5–21%) Strong in 6–47a [9, 11, 13,14,15, 17, 18]
Moderate in 5–43a [22,23,24,25,26,27]
Weak in 17–25 [33, 34, 40, 42, 43]
Increased frequency of defecation [23, 24, 45] 33 (6%) Strong in 16 [45]
Moderate in 17 [23, 24]
Tenesmus [45] 11 (2%) Strong in 11
Paroxysmal gluten-sensitive dyskinesia of Border terriers [49] 5 (1%) Strong in 2
Weak in 3
Symmetrical lupoid onychodystrophy [50] 4 (1%) Strong in 2
Weak in 2
Anaphylaxis [40] 1 (0.2%) Weak
Conjunctivitis [12] 1 (0.2%) Strong
Asthma [27] 1 (0.2%) Moderate
Sneezing [14] 1 (0.2%) Strong
  1. a Minimal and maximal number of dogs, as in some studies, the specific number of dogs showing some of the individual clinical signs was not reported