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Table 3 Frequency and percentages of the herd characteristics of dairy herds sampled in Cuba (N = 516) in a cross-sectional questionnaire survey conducted in March–July, 2014

From: Risk factors for the presence of Fasciola hepatica antibodies in bulk-milk samples and their association with milk production decreases, in Cuban dairy cattle

Variable    % N Mean ODR SD Range
Type of production Statea UEB 10.1 52 0.600a 0.188 0.05-0.99
UBPC 25.6 132 0.522b 0.187 0.05–0.98
Privatea CPA 15.1 78 0.496b 0.177 0.07–0.89
CCS 49.2 254 0.490b 0.212 0.05–1.19
Type of Herd Dairy only 54.8 283 0.511 a 0.208 0.05–1.19
Both beef and dairy 45.2 233 0.509 a 0.192 0.05–1.03
Farm total area <=13.42 ha 32.8 169 0.474b 0.194 0.12–1.03
> 13.42 and < =30 ha 14.0 72 0.472b 0.186 0.05–0.88
> 30 ha 53.3 275 0.543a 0.204 0.05-1.19
Herd size (adult cows: lactating + dry): < 30 55.4 286 0.499a 0.217 0.05-1.03
30–60 30.6 158 0.539a 0.200 0.05-1.19
> 60 14.0 72 0.534a 0.215 0.07-0.89
Deworming of cows 3.1 16 0.539a 0.187 0.28-0.98
Not dewormed
Dewormed when worm problems 22.9 118 0.480a 0.197 0.05-0.89
Preventive treatment 74.0 382 0.518a 0.202 0.05-1.19
Cows grazed together with other species
 Sheep and goats 19.2 99 0.552a 0.178 0.05-1.03
 Horse 21.5 111 0.501b 0.196 0.12–0.99
 None 59.3 306 0.500b 0.208 0.05–1.19
Stocking rate: average number of cows per hectare on a parcel?
 < 1 40.3 208 0.496a 0.185 0.07-1.19
 1–2 56.2 290 0.521a 0.210 0.05-0.99
 > 2 3.5 18 0.501a 0.232 0.05-0.85
Watering place
 Pool/pond/brook 20.9 108 0.561a 0.206 0.07-1.19
 Pump on pasture 79.1 408 0.497b 0.198 0.05–0.99
Rotational grazing of cows
 Yes 5.4 28 0.511a 0.190 0.15-0.82
 No 94.6 488 0.502a 0.201 0.05-1.19
What was the cow’s grazing time per day during the dry season?
 Day and night 14.0 72 0.542a 0.165 0.05-0.76
 < 6 h per day 62.6 322 0.498b 0.217 0.05–1.19
 > 6 h per day 23.4 122 0.541a 0.167 0.05-0.98
What was the cow’s grazing time per day during the rainy season?
 Day and night 11.0 57 0.513a 0.168 0.05-0.80
 < 6 h per day 42.4 219 0.504a 0.205 0.05-1.19
 > 6 h per day 46.5 240 0.515a 0.205 0.05-0.99
Grass proportion dry season
 81–100 20.5 106 0.406c 0.201 0.05–0.88
 51–80 50.6 261 0.511b 0.198 0.07–0.99
 < =50 28.9 149 0.583a 0.172 0.05-1.19
Grass proportion rainy season
 81–100 30.4 157 0.501a 0.188 90.05-0.91
 51–80 52.3 270 0.519a 0.205 0.05-1.19
 < =50 17.2 89 0.501a 0.215 0.12-1.03
Grass Mowing
 51–100% 27.9 144 0.496a 0.187 0.05-0.88
 < 50% 43.0 222 0.512a 0.210 0.05-1.03
 Never 29.1 150 0.522a 0.200 0.07-1.19
Municipality Camagüey 10.7% 55 0.630a 0.114 0.37-.87
Céspedes 2.7% 14 0.634 a 0.303 0.05–1.19
Esmeralda 3.7% 19 0.493 a,b,c 0.196 .15–.82
Florida 4.5% 23 0.548 a,b 0.171 0.25–.86
Guaimaro 15.7% 81 0.381 c,d 0.179 0.05–.88
Jimaguayú 10.3% 53 0.567 a,b 0.179 0.07–.99
Minas 4.5% 23 0.511 a,b 0.254 0.09–.88
Najasa 8.1% 42 0.455 b,c,d 0.142 0.17–.77
Nuevitas 4.5% 23 0.598a,b 0.263 0.07–.99
S.Cubitas 5.6% 29 0.360 d 0.192 0.11–.91
Santa Cruz del Sur 7.9% 41 0.572 a,b 0.177 0.15–.91
Sibanicú 7.6% 39 0.464 b,c,d 0.171 0.17.84
Vertientes 14.3% 74 0.545 a,b 0.179 0.05.88
  1. Different letters indicate significant differences between groups (P <  0.05)
  2. aUEB (Basic unit from the state), UBPC (Cooperative Unit Basic of Production), CCS (Credit and Service Cooperative) and CPA (Agropecuary Production Cooperative)