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Table 1 Behavioral analysis of piglets (n = 60) pre-treatment and post-treatment across all litters and timepoints. Values presented are the proportional means ± SE

From: Efficacy of buprenorphine for management of surgical castration pain in piglets

  Behaviorc Pre-Castration Post-Castration
Treatment P-value Pre-Treatment Treatment P-value Time P-value Time*Treatment P-value 0.04 mg/kg BUP cast 0.04 mg/kg BUP uncast Saline Sham
Proportion (duration) Awake inactive 0.9704 0.64 ± 0.05 0.6749 <.0001 0.2277 0.53 ± 0.02 0.50 ± 0.02 0.54 ± 0.03 0.52 ± 0.03
Lying 0.53 ± 0.08 <.0001 0.0001 0.0300 0.49 ± 0.04a 0.44 ± 0.04a 0.68 ± 0.04b 0.67 ± 0.03b
Nosing udder 0.0551 0.23 ± 0.05 0.0248 0.0047 0.9439 0.15 ± 0.03 0.17 ± 0.03 0.23 ± 0.04 0.25 ± 0.04
Sleeping 0.6062 0.28 ± 0.06 0.0187 <.0001 0.7070 0.35 ± 0.07 0.32 ± 0.07 0.45 ± 0.07 0.49 ± 0.07
Standing 0.7142 0.44 ± 0.08 <.0001 <.0001 0.0228 0.48 ± 0.08a 0.52 ± 0.07a 0.28 ± 0.06b 0.29 ± 0.06b
Tail wagging 0.4929 0.02 ± 0.00 <.0001 0.4166 0.0488 0.00 ± 0.00a 0.00 ± 0.00a 0.07 ± 0.01b 0.01 ± 0.00a
Walking 0.2945 0.16 ± 0.04 <.0001 0.0001 0.3728 0.23 ± 0.03a 0.25 ± 0.03a 0.07 ± 0.01b 0.09 ± 0.02b
Actived 0.6394 0.47 ± 0.07 <.0001 <.0001 0.0259 0.51 ± 0.06a 0.56 ± 0.06a 0.33 ± 0.06b 0.33 ± 0.06b
Paine 0.2859 0.02 ± 0.00 <.0001 0.0329 0.0002 0.02 ± 0.00a 0.03 ± 0.00a 0.08 ± 0.01b 0.02 ± 0.00a
  1. a,bMeans with different superscripts in the same row differ significantly (P < 0.05); entries in italic font are statistically significant
  2. cOnly behavior variables that were significant post-treatment are presented
  3. dActive behaviors include: nosing, suckling, walking, chewing, playing, running
  4. ePain behaviors include: stiffness, trembling, spasms, tail wagging and scratching