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Table 6 Frequency and lesion severity of TMJ-OA in different marine carnivorans in relation to age classes

From: Osteoarthritis of the temporomandibular joint in the Eastern Atlantic harbour seal (Phoca vitulina vitulina) from the German North Sea: a study of the lesions seen in dry bone

  Individuals examined TMJ-OA frequency [%] TMJ-OA severity [%] a Age class ratio Affected [%]
(Sub)species mild (1) moderate (2) severe (3) (juvenile:adult) juveniles adults
Callorhinus ursinus [10] 145 20.0 43.9 31.6 24.6 1.5 87:58 n/a b
Odobenus rosmarus [13] 76 60.5 54.7 30.2 15.1 0.3 18:58 11.1 75.9
Phoca v. richardii [11] 194 34.5 54.1 28.1 17.8 0.9 93:101 n/a b
Phoca v. vitulina [this study] 1787 53.9 68.1 26.0 5.9 1.0 910:877c 24.5 c 84.4
Zalophus californianus [12] 497 63.5 82.0 7.0 11.0 0.5 173:324 52.6 69.6
Enhydra lutris nereis [14] 1008 4.1 41.5 19.5 39.0 n/a n = 6 n = 35
Ursus maritimus [15] 249 9.2 52.9 41.2 5.9 1.0 124:125 1.6 11.3
  1. a all affected articular surfaces combined, except for Z. californianus (based on individuals affected)
  2. b the study mentioned that adult individuals were statistically significantly more often affected by TMJ-OA than juveniles
  3. c to be comparable with the other studies, the individuals of the juvenile/subadult age class of the present study are here listed as juveniles