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Table 3 Key demographic factors, disease management practices and farm characteristics associated with the prevalence of Salmonella, with p-values from simple chi-square analyses

From: Prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility and risk factors associated with non-typhoidal Salmonella on Ugandan layer hen farms

Variable Category Salmonella positive farms (%) p-value
Sex of farmer Male (n = 108) 31 (28.7) 0.004
Female (n = 129) 18 (14.0)  
Sex of manager Male (n = 85) 27 (31.89) < 0.001
Female (n = 115) 12 (10.4)  
Not applicable (n = 37)   
Age of the manager < 20 years (n = 5) 4 (80.0) 0.001
20–35 years (n = 103) 18 (17.5)  
36–50 years (n = 85) 23 (27.1)  
> 50 years (n = 35) 3 (8.6)  
  Missing (n = 9)   
Education level of the farmer Primary (n = 44) 5 (11.4) 0.012
Secondary (n = 76) 12 (15.8)  
Tertiary (n = 102) 31 (30.4)  
  Missing (n = 15)   
Farm size (no. of birds) Small (50–500) (n = 162) 19 (11.7) < 0.001
Medium (501–1000) (n = 33) 14 (42.4)  
Large (> 1000) (n = 38) 14 (36.8)  
  Missing (n = 4)   
Number of poultry houses One house (n = 135) 12 (8.9) < 0.001
Two houses (n = 45) 8 (17.8)  
Three houses (n = 32) 21 (65.6)  
> 3 houses (n = 25) 8 (32.0)  
Management system Free range (n = 47) 2 (4.3) < 0.001
Semi intensive (n = 90) 11 (12.2)  
Intensive (n = 98) 35 (35.7)  
  Others (n = 2)   
Use of protective clothing Yes (n = 136) 35 (25.7) 0.031
No (n = 99) 14 (14.1)  
  Missing (n = 2)   
Who does vaccination Private (n = 88) 19 (21.6) 0.029
Self/family (n = 136) 25 (18.4)  
Employee (n = 9) 5 (55.6)  
  Missing (n = 4)   
Reuse of egg trays Yes (n = 105) 29 (27.6) 0.034
No (n = 119) 19 (16.0)  
  Missing (n = 13)   
Who treats the birds Self (n = 155) 22 (14.2) < 0.001
Government/Animal Health Worker (n = 11) 0 (0.0)  
Private/Animal Health worker (n = 52) 24 (46.2)  
  Missing (n = 19)   
Presence of other livestock Present (n = 101) 26 (25.7) 0.097
Not present (n = 136) 23 (16.9)  
Having a separate house for new birds Yes (n = 136) 24 (17.6) 0.134
No (n = 97) 25 (25.8)  
  Missing (n = 4)   
Disposal of dead birds Burying (n = 109) 21 (19.3) < 0.001
Burning (n = 17) 12 (70.6)  
Throw away (n = 45) 9 (20.0)  
Giving to animals (dogs and pigs) (n = 32) 4 (12.5)  
Drop in a pit (n = 24) 3 (12.5)  
  Missing (n = 10)   
Keeping of pets Yes (n = 137) 35 (25.5) 0.025
No (n = 99) 14 (14.1)  
  Missing (n = 1)   
If yes, species of pets Dogs (n = 62) 20 (32.3) 0.006
Cats (n = 24) 0 (0.0)  
  Both dogs and cats (n = 51) 15 (29.4)  
Keeping of records Yes (n = 153) 43 (28.1) < 0.001
No (n = 80) 5 (6.2)