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Table 1 Temporal applicability and accuracy of diagnostic tests for paratuberculosis in sheep and cattle

From: Case definition terminology for paratuberculosis (Johne’s disease)

Test Stage of disease when positive Potential sensitivitya Potential specificityb
Serum ELISA Mid, late Low to highd Moderate to high
Delated type hypersensitivity Early, mid Moderate to high Moderate
Interferon gamma assay Early, mid Unknown Unknown
Faecal smear Mid, late Lowe Low to moderate
Faecal culture Earlyc, mid, late Low to highd High
Faecal qPCR Earlyc, mid, late Moderate to highf High
Tissue culture Early, mid, late High High
Gross pathology Late Low to moderate Low to moderate
Histopathology Mid, late Moderate to high High
Clinical signs Late Low to moderate Low to moderate
  1. Adapted from Whittington and Sergeant (2001) [28] and Nielsen and Toft (2008) [30]. The terms low, moderate and high indicate ranges for sensitivity of <40%, 40–70% and >70%, respectively; corresponding values for specificity are <80%, 80–95% and >95%, respectively
  2. aProportion of truly infected/diseased animals that test positive
  3. bProportion of truly non-infected/healthy animals that test negative
  4. cTransient, for a few months commencing a few months after infection
  5. dHigh sensitivity possible in late stage of disease
  6. eDue to low analytical sensitivity
  7. fBased on sensitivity similar to culture in liquid medium