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Table 4 Least square means (LSM) and standard error (SE) of the brightness mode and pulsed-wave Doppler variables of the interdigital artery in the pastern region in both hind limbs in 17 healthy German Holstein cows using statistical model B, which considered curve type (CT)

From: Evaluation of arterial digital blood flow using Doppler ultrasonography in healthy dairy cows

Variable LSM ± SE CT1 LSM ± SE CT2 LSM ± SE CT3 LSM ± SE CT4
D (cm) 0.56a ± 0.03 0.55a ± 0.02 0.51a ± 0.03 0.55a ± 0.03
Vsyst (m/s) 0.36a ± 0.03 0.31a ± 0.02 0.35a ± 0.03 0.32a ± 0.04
Vdiast (m/s) 0.16a ± 0.01 0.10b ± 0.01 0.09b ± 0.01 0.06b ± 0.01
Venddiast (m/s) 0.08a ± 0.01 0.05b ± 0.00 0.03b ± 0.01 0.00c ± 0.01
Vmean (m/s) 0.17a ± 0.02 0.12ab ± 0.01 0.11bc ± 0.02 0.06c ± 0.02
PIe 1.41a ± 1.15 1.98ab ± 1.08 3.04b ± 1.15 13.38c ± 1.37
RI 0.74a ± 0.03 0.83b ± 0.01 0.91c ± 0.03 1.29d ± 0.03
BFe (ml/min) 267.86a ± 1.21 164.23a ± 1.10 134.02ab ± 1.20 63.05b ± 1.38
PR (1/min) 78a ± 3 77a ± 2 76a ± 3 75a ± 3
  1. D vessel diameter, Vsyst maximum systolic velocity, Vdiast maximum diastolic velocity, Venddiast end-diastolic velocity, Vmean maximum time-averaged mean velocity, PI persistence index, RI resistance index, BF blood flow rate, PR pulse frequency
  2. a,b,c,d within rows, means with different superscripts are different (p < 0.05)
  3. emedian in the original scale, calculated from the LSM estimated in the log transformed scale