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Table 1 Pharmacokinetic parameters (mean ± S.D.) of ceftiofur in lactating goats after IV and SC administration at a dose of 2.2 mg/kg bodyweight, and after SC-LA administration at a dose of 6.6 mg/kg bodyweight (n = 6)

From: Pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), and PK-PD integration of ceftiofur after a single intravenous, subcutaneous and subcutaneous-LA administration in lactating goats

Treatment
Parameters Intravenous SC SC-LA
λ z (1/h) 0.16 ± 0.07 0.14 ± 0.06 0.02 ± 0.01 a, b
t½λz 1 (h) 4.21 5.10 41.12a, b
Vss (L/kg) 0.18 ± 0.05 -- --
Vz (L/kg) 0.31 ± 0.14 -- --
AUC0–24 (μg · h/mL) 45.51 ± 6.80 38.17 ± 6.97 85.13 ± 7.53 a
AUC0-∞ (μg · h/mL) 47.06 ± 6.84 39.88 ± 6.26 117.12 ± 11.54 a
MRT (h) 4.27 ± 0.98 6.29 ± 0.35a 25.11 ± 4.35 a, b
Cl (L/h · kg) 0.04 ± 0.01 -- --
MAT (h) -- 2.02 ± 1.09 20.83 ± 5.13 b
Ka (1/h) -- 0.53 ± 0.49 0.03 ± 0.01 b
Cmax (μg/L) -- 6.25 ± 0.85 7.77 ± 1.26
Tmax (h) -- 0.91 ± 0.20 4.66 ± 2.05 b
F (%) -- 85.16 ± 10.24 84.43 ± 7.40
  1. T½λz: The elimination half-life associated with the terminal slope (λz) of a semilogarithmic concentration-time curve. Vz: The apparent volume of distribution calculated by the area method. Vss: The apparent volume of distribution at steady state. AUC0-∞: The area under the serum concentration-time curve from zero to infinity. AUC0–24: the area under the serum concentration–time curve from zero to 24 h. MRT: Mean residence time. MAT: Mean absorption time. Cl: The total body clearance of drug. Tmax: The time to reach peak concentration following extravascular administration. MAT: Mean absorption time. Ka: Absorption rate constant. Cmax: The peak concentration following extravascular administration. F: The fraction of the administered dose systemically available (bioavailability). aSignificantly different from IV (P < 0.05). bSignificantly different from SC (P < 0.05). 1 Harmonic Mean