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Table 7 Temporal trends of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli by country

From: European multicenter study on antimicrobial resistance in bacteria isolated from companion animal urinary tract infections

Countrya
(Years)
AMC 3GC FLU CN SXT MDR FullS
ORb
(95 % CI)c
P value
ORb
(95 % CI) c
P value
ORb
(95 % CI) c
P value
ORb
(95 % CI) c
P value
ORb
(95 % CI) c
P value
ORb
(95 % CI) c
P value
ORb
(95 % CI) c
P value
BE
(2010–13)
0.787
(0.6460.960)
0.0180
-
-
-
0.749
(0.6350.882)
0.0006
0.677
(0.5070.904)
0.0081
0.796
(0.6950.912)
0.0010
0.529 d
(0.3930.712)
<0.0001
1.275 d
(1.1271.442)
0.0001
DK
(2008–13)
0.698
(0.5000.976)
0.0357
0.869
(0.646–1.169)
0.3533
0.742
(0.5650.976)
0.0325
0.926
(0.620–1.384)
0.7086
0.793
(0.6420.980)
0.0316
0.874
(0.615–1.242)
0.4528
1.396
(1.1561.684)
0.0005
FR
(2010–13)
0.885
(0.780–1.005)
0.0606
0.859
(0.7490.987)
0.0314
0.822
(0.7270.928)
0.0016
0.938
(0.734–1.200)
0.6121
0.960
(0.853–1.080)
0.4997
0.901
(0.782–1.037)
0.1448
1.112
(1.0021.233)
0.0456
DE
(2009–13)
1.029
(0.779–1.358)
0.8424
1.076
(0.805–1.438)
0.6211
1.185
(0.912–1.540)
0.2037
0.856
(0.520–1.409)
0.5397
1.040
(0.831–1.302)
0.7317
1.111
(0.801–1.541)
0.5295
0.941
(0.780–1.136)
0.5281
ELe
(2009–13)
1.534
(0.851–2.766)
0.1545
1.083
(0.586–2.003)
0.7992
0.924
(0.630–1.355)
0.6855
-
-
-
0.880
(0.596–1.301)
0.5229
-
-
-
-
-
-
IT
(2009–2013)
1.175
(0.844–1.637
0.3391)
1.017
(0.749–1.383)
0.9127
0.828
(0.629–1.090)
0.1784
1.007
(0.700–1.449)
0.9686
0.769
(0.582–1.016)
0.0645
1.065
(0.761–1.490)
0.7147
1.248
(0.953–1.634)
0.1076
NL
(2008–13)
1.108
(1.0261.197)
0.0088
0.465
(0.4020.539)
<0.0001
0.916
(0.8410.999)
0.0464
0.682
(0.327–1.422)
0.3071
0.917
(0.8590.978)
0.0083
0.380 d
(0.3200.450)
<0.0001
1.648 d
(1494.1.818)
<0.0001
PT
(2008–13)
1.139
(0.913–1.419)
0.2482
1.187
(0.945–1.492)
0.1411
1.029
(0.823–1.287)
0.8029
1.222
(0.899–1.660)
0.2010
1.087
(0.867–1.364)
0.4680
1.156
(0.898–1.488)
0.2601
0.797
(0.629–1.010)
0.0608
ES
(2010–13)
1.372
(0.855–2.201)
0.1899
1.551
(0.857–2.808)
0.1474
0.801
(0.529–1214)
0.2965
0.859
(0.467–1.578)
0.6238
0.752
(0.489–1.156)
0.1939
1.237
(0.677–2.258)
0.4897
0.944
(0.570–1.564)
0.8234
SE
(2008–13)
0.976
(0.915–1.041)
0.4569
-
-
-
0.980
(0.827–1.147)
0.8018
0.700
(0.5620.872)
0.0015
0.961
(0.892–1.037)
0.3059
0.697
(0.4930.985)
0.0407
1.035
(0.965–1.110)
0.3341
CH
(2008–13)
1.143
(0.905–1.445)
0.2621
1.116
(0.861–1.447)
0.4067
1.007
(0.841–1.205)
0.9426
1.493
(1.0092.208)
0.0451
1.080
(0.901–1.294)
0.4050
1.189
(0.920–1.536)
0.1863
1.025
(0.877–1.197)
0.7594
UK
(2008–13)
1.075
(0.857–1.357)
0.5194
1.106
(0.873–1.400)
0.4041
0.945
(0.739–1.208)
0.6511
1.306
(0.792–2.155)
0.2952
0.972
(0.797–1.185)
0.7778
1.355
(0.954–1.925)
0.0892
1.154
(0.950–1.401)
0.1492
  1. AMC amoxicillin clavulanate, 3GC third generation cephalosporins, FLU fluoroquinolones, CN gentamicin, SXT trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, MDR multidrug-resistant, FullS fully-susceptible
  2. aBE, Belgium; DK, Denmark; FR, France; DE, Germany; EL, Greece; IT, Italy; NL, the Netherlands; PT, Portugal; ES, Spain; SE, Sweden; CH, Switzerland; UK, United Kingdom
  3. bOR, Odds ratio
  4. c95 % CI, 95 % Confidence interval
  5. dMDR and FullS temporal trends do not include resistance to 3GC for Belgium and CN for the Netherlands
  6. eData regarding the years 2010 and 2012 were excluded from Greece resistance trends analysis since less than ten isolates were tested in those years
  7. Statistically significant trends are highlighted in bold