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Table 1 Reported effects of lead poisoning in dogs

From: Lead intoxication in dogs: risk assessment of feeding dogs trimmings of lead-shot game

Effect category Clinical and pathological findings References
Gastrointestinal Vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal pain (“lead colic”), delayed gastric emptying [12, 21, 22]
Neurological Tremor, spasms, epileptic seizures, agitation, lethargy, ataxia, anorexia, cortical neuronal necrosis [12, 22, 28]
Renal Proximal tubular epithelial cell damage and necrosis, enlarged kidneys [24, 28]
Skeletal Sclerosis, delayed closure of vertebral epiphyses, lead lines [24, 28]
Haematological Anemia (reduced erythrocyte, lowered haemoglobin, elevated mean cell volume), basophilic stippling, nucleated erythrocytes, elevated leukocyte count [21, 22, 28]
Cardiovascular Hypertension, endothelial degeneration and capillary proliferation in the brain [28, 31]
Biochemical Reduced ALA-D activity, increased urinary ALA, hypoproteinemia [2022, 24, 29, 31]