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Table 1 Physiological parameters recorded over 20 min for each treatment group

From: Comparison of the effects of ketamine and fentanyl-midazolam-medetomidine for sedation of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

  Treatment groups p-value
  Ketamine Fentanyl-Midazolam-Fentanyl  
Time 0
n = 8
5
n = 8
10
n = 8
15
n = 7
20
n = 7
0
n = 8
5
n = 8
10
n = 8
15
n = 8
20
n = 8
 
HR(beat/min) 134 ± 17 121 ± 18 117 ± 17 110 ± 14 112 ± 18 97 ± 17 90 ± 17 87 ± 18 86 ± 18 85 ± 17 0.0066*
SpO2 (%) 98.2 ± 1.0 99.8 ± 0.7 100 ± 0 99.9 ± 0.4 100 ± 0 96.1 ± 7.8 99.6 ± 0.7 99.8 ± 0.5 99.8 ± 0.7 99.6 ± 0.7 0.7254
RR(breaths/min) 36 ± 8 41 ± 8 36 ± 6 40 ± 11 43 ± 11 30 ± 10 28 ± 12 28 ± 11 29 ± 11 29 ± 10 0.0416*
EtCO2 (mmHg) 36 ± 8 32 ± 9 32 ± 9 34 ± 9 32 ± 8 39 ± 12 44 ± 11 43 ± 11 44 ± 10 42 ± 10 0.0462*
BPsyst(mmHg) 111 ± 10 111 ± 9 107 ± 9 107 ± 11 108 ± 13 101 ± 9 102 ± 10 97 ± 10 93 ± 9 90 ± 8 0.0313*
SD 12 ± 3 12 ± 2 11 ± 3 11 ± 3 11 ± 4 17 ± 1 18 ± 1 18 ± 1 18 ± 1 18 ± 1 0.0009*
  1. Data are shown as mean ± 1 SD. n represents the number of animals that provide data at the each time point. In the ketamine group one of the primates started to recover after 10 min of sedation and so recording session was stopped. Areas Under the Curve (AUCs) were calculated for each parameter. The Shapiro-wilk test showed a normal distribution for Heart Rate (HR), the Respiration Rate (RR), the Systolic Blood Pressure (BPsyst) and the end-tidal CO2 (EtCO2). These AUCs parameters were compared with Student t test. The oxygen saturation (SpO2) and the sedation depth (SD) were compared with the Mann–Whitney U test. An asterisk next to the p-value indicates a significant statistical difference at α threshold of 5 %