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Table 4 Assessmenta of medicinal plants based on peer-reviewed referencesb of the last 20 years aiming respiratory indications

From: Medicinal plants – prophylactic and therapeutic options for gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases in calves and piglets? A systematic review

Plant species Number of references Type of reference Anti-bacterial Synergism with AB Antiviral Spasmolytic Expectorant Antitussive Immuno-stimulant Anti-inflammatory Analgesic Hypothesis proved
    + ? o + ? o + ? o + ? o + ? o + ? o + ? o + ? o + ? o + ? o
Achillea millefolium L. 2 in vitro           21                     
1 in vivo + clinical           12                     
Agrimonia eupatoria L. 1 in vitro        13                        
0 in vivo + clinical                               
Allium sativum L. 1 in vitro           14                     
0 in vivo + clinical                               
Althaea officinalis L. 0 in vitro                               
4 in vivo + clinical                 45               
Camellia sinensis (L). KUNTZE 0 in vitro                               
2 in vivo + clinical 16      17        18                  
Cetraria islandica (L.) ACH. 0 in vitro                               
1 in vivo + clinical                       19         
Echinacea purpurea (L.) MOENCH 3 in vitro        210                211         
8 in vivo + clinical 112       113   114           215   116        217   218
Foeniculum vulgare (L.) MILL. 2 in vitro           219                     
0 in vivo + clinical                               
Glycyrrhiza glabra L. 1 in vitro        120                        
2 in vivo + clinical           121       122               
Mentha x piperita L. 1 in vitro           123                     
0 in vivo + clinical                               
Pimpinella anisum L. 2 in vitro           224                     
0 in vivo + clinical                               
Plantago lanceolata L. 1 in vitro           125                     
0 in vivo + clinical                               
Primula veris L. 1 in vitro 126                              
0 in vivo + clinical                               
Rubus fruticosus L. 0 in vitro                               
1 in vivo + clinical                       127         
Rumex ssp. L. 2 in vitro 128       229                        
0 in vivo + clinical                               
Salvia officinalis L. 0 in vitro                               
2 in vivo + clinical                 130          131      
Sambucus nigra L. 1 in vitro        132                        
1 in vivo + clinical                             133   
Thymus vulgaris L. 9 in vitro 334          635                     
1 in vivo + clinical                             136   
Tussilago farfara L. 1 in vitro 137                              
1 in vivo + clinical              138    139               
Urtica dioica L. 3 in vitro 340                              
1 in vivo + clinical        141                        
Vaccinium myrtillus L. 1 in vitro        142                        
0 in vivo + clinical                               
Sum of plant species for each effect in vitro 5 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
in vivo + clinical 2 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 0 2 0 0 4 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 3 0 1
Sum of assessments in vitro 9 0 0 0 0 0 8 0 0 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
in vivo + clinical 2 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 0 2 0 0 7 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 4 0 2
  1. a Assessment = conclusion of a reference on a hypothesized effect; b reference = trial x plant species x indication; + = reference proves evidently the hypothesized effect; ? = reference shows uncertain hypothesized effect; o = reference does not prove evidently the hypothesized effect
  2. 1 [288, 289] 2 [290] 3 [291] 4 [292] 5 [293296] 6 [297] 7 [298] 8 [297] 9 [299] 10 [300, 301] 11 [103, 301] 12 [302] 13 [94] 14 [96] 15 [302, 303] 16 [96] 17 [95, 304] 18 [305, 306] 19 [307, 308] 20 [309] 21 [140] 22 [139] 23 [89] 24 [310, 311] 25 [53] 26 [312] 27 [313] 28 [314] 29 [315] 30 [293] 31 [316] 32 [300] 33 [317] 34 [191, 318, 319] 35 [113116, 320, 321] 36 [108] 37 [322] 38 [323] 39 [323] 40 [322, 324, 325] 41 [326] 42 [327]