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Table 3 Assessmenta of medicinal plants based on peer-reviewed referencesb of the last 20 years aiming gastrointestinal indicationsc

From: Medicinal plants – prophylactic and therapeutic options for gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases in calves and piglets? A systematic review

Plant species Number of references Type of reference Antibacterial Synergism with AB Antiviral Antiprotozoal Antiadhesive Antidiarrheal Spasmolytic Immunostimulant Antiinflammatory Analgesic Hypothesis proved
    + ? o + ? o + ? o + ? o + ? o + ? o + ? o + ? o + ? o + ? o + ? o
Achillea millefolium L. 6 in vitro 21                   42               
2 in vivo + clinical    13                 14               
Allium sativum L. 12 in vitro 125    16                              
9 in vivo + clinical 27 18         29       210       111    112       213   
Althaea officinalis L. 2 in vitro 214                                 
0 in vivo + clinical                                  
Camellia sinensis (L.) KUNTZE 8 in vitro 615    116            117     118               
3 in vivo + clinical 219                220                  
Carum carvi L. 4 in vitro 321                   122               
1 in vivo + clinical                          123         
Echinacea purpurea (L.) MOENCH 0 In vitro                                  
1 in vivo + clinical   124                                
Foeniculum vulgare (L.) MILL. 10 in vitro 625 126 127 128         129              130         
2 in vivo + clinical                    131               132
Glycyrrhiza glabra L. 9 in vitro 433   234     135             136       137         
4 in vivo + clinical 238                   139             140   
Linum usitatissimum L. 0 in vitro                                  
3 in vivo + clinical                 141    142             143   144
Matricaria recutita L. 9 in vitro 545                   446               
3 in vivo + clinical                 247                148   
Plant species Number of references Type of reference Antibacterial Synergism with AB Antiviral Antiprotozoal Antiadhesive Antidiarrheal Spasmolytic Immunostimulant Antiinflammatory Analgesic Hypothesis proved
    + ? o + ? o + ? o + ? o + ? o + ? o + ? o + ? o + ? o + ? o + ? o
Mentha x piperita L. 13 in vitro 849 150   151                352               
7 in vivo + clinical 153                 154   455             156   
Origanum vulgare L. 21 in vitro 1857 258                        159         
8 in vivo + clinical 160          261       162   163       264 165       166   
Picea abies (L.) H.KARST. 1 in vitro 167                                 
0 in vivo + clinical                                  
Pimpinella anisum L. 7 in vitro 368 269   270                171               
0 in vivo + clinical                                  
Plantago lanceolata L. 1 in vitro                    172               
1 in vivo + clinical    173                               
Potentilla erecta (L.) RAEUSCH. 0 in vitro                                  
2 in vivo + clinical              174              175        
Rubus fruticosus L. 1 in vitro           176                        
0 in vivo + clinical                                  
Rumex ssp. L. 4 in vitro 477                                 
1 in vivo + clinical                 178                  
Salix ssp. L. 1 in vitro                    179               
0 in vivo + clinical                                  
Salvia officinalis L. 6 in vitro 580 181                                
5 in vivo + clinical 382          283       1 84 185   186    187            
Sambucus nigra L. 1 in vitro 188                                 
1 in vivo + clinical                          189         
Thymus vulgaris L. 14 in vitro 1090 191                  392               
3 in vivo + clinical    293                    194            
Plant species Number of references Type of reference Antibacterial Synergism with AB Antiviral Antiprotozoal Antiadhesive Antidiarrheal Spasmolytic Immunostimulant Antiinflammatory Analgesic Hypothesis proved
    + ? o + ? o + ? o + ? o + ? o + ? o + ? o + ? o + ? o + ? o + ? o
Tussilago farfara L. 1 in vitro 195                                 
0 in vivo + clinical                                  
Urtica dioica L. 6 in vitro 296   297     298                           
2 in vivo + clinical                          299         
Vaccinium myrtillus L. 2 in vitro     1100       1101                        
2 in vivo + clinical                         1102 1103   1104       
Sum of plant species for each effect in vitro 18 6 3 6 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 10 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
in vivo + clinical 6 2 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 1 0 0 7 2 1 6 0 0 3 0 2 6 1 1 0 0 0 6 0 2
Sum of assessments in vitro 93 8 5 7 0 0 3 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 20 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
in vivo + clinical 11 2 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 1 0 0 10 2 1 7 0 0 3 0 3 7 1 1 0 0 0 7 0 2
  1. aAssessment = conclusion of a reference on a hypothesized effect; breference = trial x plant species x indication; cparticularly unspecified or infectious diarrhea and gastrointestinal spasms + = reference proves evidently the hypothesized effect; ? = reference shows uncertain hypothesized effect; o = reference does not prove evidently the hypothesized effect
  2. 1[147, 148] 2[149152] 3[153] 4[154] 5[6976, 155158] 6[69] 7[63, 66] 8[159] 9[62, 160] 10[63, 64] 11[66] 12[77] 13[161, 162] 14[163, 164] 15[165170] 16[170] 17[171] 18[172] 19[124, 125] 20[124, 173] 21[174176] 22[177] 23[178] 24[179] 25[175, 176, 180183] 26[184] 27[185] 28[181] 29[186] 30[187] 31[188] 32[189] 33[143, 190192] 34[142, 193] 35[145] 36[194] 37[195] 38[196, 197] 39[141] 40[198] 41[199] 42[199] 43[200] 44[201] 45[202] [175, 185, 203, 204] 46[205208] 47[209, 210] 48[189] 49[176, 211216] 50[217] 51[214] 52[88, 205, 218] 53[219] 54[220] 55[86, 87, 221, 222] 56[223] 57[52, 118, 175, 224237] 58[238, 239] 59[240] 60[241] 61[242, 243] 62[244] 63[245] 64[244, 246] 65[247] 66[248] 67[249] 68[175, 250, 251] 69[252, 253] 70[251, 254] 71[255] 72[53] 73[256] 74[257] 75[258] 76[259] 77[180, 260262] 78[263] 79[264] 80[175, 211, 233, 237, 265] 81[252] 82[266268] 83[267, 268] 84[269] 85[270] 86[269] 87[268] 88[271] 89[272] 90[52, 118120, 175, 176, 226, 250, 252, 273] 91[274] 92[113, 275, 276] 93[277, 278] 94[279] 95[280] 96[191, 281] 97[185, 282] 98[145] 99[283, 284] 100[285] 101[259] 102[286] 103[287] 104[286]