Skip to main content

Table 1 Challenging infectious diseases in calves and piglets: pathogens, pathophysiology, resulting demands for prophylaxis and therapy

From: Medicinal plants – prophylactic and therapeutic options for gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases in calves and piglets? A systematic review

Disease complex Pathogens Pathophysiology/pathogenesis Demands for prophylaxis and therapy
Bacteria Viruses Parasites
Calves
Neonatal Calf Diarrhea1 Escherichia coli Bovine Coronavirus Cryptosporidium parvum secretory/malabsorptive/maldigestive diarrhea antimicrobial
    Rotavirus   dehydration antiviral
     hypovolemic shock antidiarrheal
     decrease in temperature antiadhesive
     d-lactat acidosis astringent
     septicaemia spasmolytic
     neurological symptoms analgesic
     apathy anti-inflammatory
     recumbency orexigenic
     reluctance to drink prebiotic
     fever immunostimulant
Bovine Respiratory Disease2 Mannheimia haemolytica Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus   catharral/interstitial/fibrinous bronchopneumonia antimicrobial
  Pasteurella multocida Parainfluenza type 3 virus   fever antiviral
  Histophilus somni Bovine respiratory syncytial virus   increased respiratory rate analgesic
  Mycoplasma bovis Bovine viral diarrhea virus   dyspnoea anti-inflammatory
     inappetence immunostimulant
     nasal discharge mucolytic
     coughing secretolytic
     apathy antitussive
     runting  
Piglets
Neonatal Diarrhea Escherichia coli Rotavirus Cryptosporidium spp. secretory/malabsorbtive/maldigestive diarrhea antimicrobial
Postweaning Diarrhea3 Clostridium perfringens Coronavirus Isospora suis enteritis antiviral
  Lawsonia intracellularis Porcine Circovirus type 2 Trichuris suis colitis antidiarrheal
  Brachyspira spp.   Oesophagostomum dentatum dehydration antiadhesive
  Salmonella spp.    acidosis astringent
  (Yersinia spp.)      septicaemia spasmolytic
     neurological symptoms analgesic
     apathy anti-inflammatory
     reduced growth rates orexigenic
      prebiotic
      immunostimulant
Porcine respiratory disease complex4 Pasteurella multocida Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus   suppurative/fibrinous/interstitial bronchopneumonia antimicrobial
  Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Swine influenza virus   coughing antiviral
  Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Porcine circovirus type 2   nasal discharge analgesic
  (Streptococcus suis)    increased respiratory rate anti-inflammatory
  (Haemophilus parasuis)    fever immunostimulant
     reduced growth rates mucolytic
     runting secretolytic
      antitussive
  1. 1[1013] 2[35, 23, 25] 3[6, 1518] 4[22, 27, 29]