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Table 1 Parameters and parameter functions as applied for calculation of the basic reproduction numbers \(\mathcal {R}_{0}\) for African horse sickness (AHS) and Bluetongue (BT). Rates are given in day −1

From: Outdoor and indoor monitoring of livestock-associated Culicoides spp. to assess vector-free periods and disease risks

Parameter Symbol Value/Function Reference
Vector biting rate k(T) 0.00017 T (T−3.70) (41.87−T)1/2.71 [51]
Virus reproduction rate in vector γ M (T) 0.017 (T−12.6) [52]
Vector mortality rate m M (T) 0.0089 e x p(0.155 T) [53]
Transmission probability vector to host p M for AHS 0.780 [54]
  p M for BT 1.000 [14]
Transmission probability host to vector p E for AHS 0.040 [54]
  p C = p S for BT 0.050 [14]
Removal rate of hosts α E for AHS 0.125 [55]
  α C for BT 0.055 [56]
  α S for BT 0.125 [14]
Fraction dying due to infection ν E for AHS 0.800 [55]
  ν C = ν S for BT 0.000 [14]