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Table 5 Details of number of dogs, 95 % CI affected cases, AED doses and serum levels, treatment period and adverse effects

From: Antiepileptic drugs’ tolerability and safety – a systematic review and meta-analysis of adverse effects in dogs

Study AED No of dogs Prevalence 95 % CI affected case Doses of AEDs Serum levels of AEDs Treatmentperiod Body system affected and adverse effects Most common adverse effects Adverse effect type
von Klopmann et al. 2007 Zonisamide as an adjunct to PHB and/or PBr 11 72.7 % 46.4 %–99.0 % Zonisamide: mean, 8.9; range, 5–11 mg/kg PO BID
PHB and PBr: NA but continued unchanged or reduced if appropriate
Zonisamide: median, 19.2; range, 15.2–38. 4 lg/ml.
PHB: median, 121; range, 66–150 5 lmol/l.
PBr: median 1.2; range, 0.7–1.7 g/l.
range, 4–17 m Neurological (ataxia, sedation), ClinPath (increased ALP, ALT and GLDH) ataxia, sedation, increased ALP I
Chung et al. 2012 Zonisamide 10 10 % −8.6 %–28.6 % median 9.5; mean 8.65; range 2.5–12 mg/kg PO BID range, 15.24–22.41 mg/mL median, 12; mean, 11.2 m Neurological (sedation), GI (vomiting, anorexia) sedation, vomiting, anorexia I
Dewey et al. 2004 Zonisamide as an adjunct to PHB and/or PBr and/or felbamate and/or gaba and/or cloraz 12 50 % 21.7 %–78.3 % Zonisamide: mean, 8.9; range, 5–11 mg/kg PO BID.
Other AEDs: NA but in 9/12 dogs concurrent AEDs doses were eliminated or reduced.
Zonisamide: median, 23.5; mean, 21.2 μg/mL. mean, 8; median, 9; range, 2–18 m Neurological (ataxia, sedation), GI (vomiting), ClinPath (ALP) ataxia, increased ALP I
Walker et al. 1988 Zonisamide 40 NA NA 10, 30 or 75 mg/kg PO SID range, 10–140 ug/ml 13 m Neurological (aggression) GI (emaciation), ClinPath (increased ALP, decreased albumin) aggression, increased ALP, decreased albumin I
Boothe et al. 2008 Zonisamide 8 0 % 0 % 6.9 mg/kg IV SID or 10.3 mg⁄kg PO SID range, 6–55 mcg⁄ml 2 m Endocrine (Decreased total T4)
(However, total T4 was only slightly decreased at the study end)
Cook et al. 2011 Zonisamide 1 NA NA range, 7.9–8.4 mg/kg PO BID 38 μg/mL 18 m ClinPath (mixed acid base disorder) NA II
Miller et al. 2011 Zonisamide 1 NA NA 7.7 mg/kg PO BID NA 0.3 m GI (hepatoxicity) NA II
  1. Abbreviations: AED(s) anti-epileptic drug(s), BID bis in die (twice daily), Chloraz Chlorazepate, CSF cerebrospinal fluid, CL confidence level, Gaba Gabapentin, IE idiopathic epilepsy, LEV Levetiracetam, m month(s), NA Not Available, PHB phenobarbital, PD polydipsia, PU polyuria, PP polyphagia, PBr potassium bromide, Prim primidone, PO per os, SID semel in die (once daily), TID ter in die (three times daily), TPM Topiramate, w week(s), y year(s)