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Table 2 The median and range of the HU measurements of the different structures, ipsilateral and contralateral of the injection site, on the pre- and post-contrast CT images for the intravenous and intra-arterial protocols

From: Intra-arterial versus intra venous contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the equine head

Structure Injection Side Intravenous Protocol Intra-arterial Protocol
   n Pre-Contrast (HU) Post-Contrast (HU) n Pre-Contrast (HU) Post-Contrast (HU)
Maxillary vein Ipsilat. 12 63.8(34.9–90.7) 109.7(81.3–146.5) 12 62.3(43.2–97.1) 307.9(91.8–2587.6)
Contralat. 12 63.0(36.7–97.8) 104.3(67.9–151.4) 12 61.0(48.7–80.7) 112.6(66.6–241.4)
Pituitary gland N/A 12 47.5(38.5–66.6) 78.7(58.6–100.0)a 12 57.2(34.7–108.0) 83.8(56.5–182.2)a
Nose septum N/A 9 68.5(32.5–115.0) 81.9(61.9–120.9) 11 67.6(50.5–108.1) 97.3(63.2–142.4)a
Nose mucosa Ipsilat. 9 64.0(24.8–134.5) 83.7(23,3–142.5)a 10 48.2(40.0–92.4) 77.7(40.9–125.5)a
Contralat. 8 63.2(14.4–128.6) 89.8(36.3–127.3)a 10 56.6(27.3–98.6) 86.1(30.3–148.0)a
Parotis salivary gland Ipsilat. 12 44.7(24.3–61.1) 62.0(37.6–97.7)a 8 42.0(32.4–55.5) 62.9(37.2–95.6)a
Contralat. 12 47.7(32.9–61.7) 66.3(37.8–110.5)a 8 43.7(33.7–53.8) 65.5(32.3–93.7)a
Cerebrum Ipsilat. 12 40.0(30.5–55.0) 41.4(29.8–56.4)a 12 38.2(31.4–53.8) 45.7(33.2–64.4)a
Contralat. 12 40.5(30.2–53.0) 44.8(31.4–56.1)a 12 38.7(30.4–67.0) 45.8(35.2–91.1)a
Longus capitis musc. Ipsilat. 12 46.3(19.6–59.8) 52.1(23.6–65.1)a 8 52.2(30.7–58.9) 57.3(43.5–95.3)a
Contralat. 12 50.8(32.9–66.4) 54.6(36.0–67.1)a 8 51.1(35.7–57.8) 62.0(50.3–83.9)a
Temporal musc. Ipsilat. 12 66.5(47.7–87.7) 69.3(50.0–91.8) 12 68.4(46.9–81.7) 73.7(59.4–91.0)a
Contralat. 12 66.1(44.6–79.6) 67.8(49.8–97.0) 12 67.3(47.3–76.6) 75.3(55.2–92.0)a
Masseter musc. Ipsilat. 9 79.4(50.8–125.8) 85.3(53.5–140.0) 11 85.5(55.6–98.6) 91.0(67.8–154.5)a
Contralat. 9 79.3(55.5–128.6) 83.0(59.8–129.0) 11 84.7(52.4–105.4) 84.9(59.7–149.6)a
Corpus vitreum Ipsilateral 11 14.9(4.2–25.9) 15.7(8.3–25.8) 11 9.7(2.7–20.9) 11.2(3.3–24.8)
Contralat. 12 15.3(4.6–28.8) 14.8(5.6–23.4) 11 8.7(2.8–21.0) 8.5(1.5–39.8)
Brainstem N/A 12 44.7(31.6–64.4) 48.3(33.6–67.4)a 8 39.8(23.0–68.0) 40.0(21.5–75.2)
Tongue N/A 9 55.7(23.2–103.2) 62.2(24.4–107.4) 11 48.4(17.8–78.4) 56.3(27.7–81.2)
  1. n amount of structures measured, HU Houndsfield Unit; a Significant increase in contrast enhancement between pre- and post contrast scans