Skip to main content

Table 5 Seasonal changes in serum minerals and cortisol for subadult brown bears (Ursus arctos) presented as 95 % confidence interval

From: Seasonal variation in haematological and biochemical variables in free-ranging subadult brown bears (Ursus arctos) in Sweden

Variable Unit λa 2.5 - 97.5 intervalb Sexc Seasond n Range p-valuee
Calcium mmol/L 2 1.9–2.6 F + M W + Sp + Su 60 1.9–2.6  
Chloride mmol/L 2 92–103 F + M W + Sp 42 92–102 0.0006
Su 18 95–105
Iron μmol/L 0.2 12–48 F + M W 15 12–26 <0.0001
Sp + Su 45 16–51
Magnesium mmol/L 1.6 0.71–1.25 F + M W 15 0.98–1.30 <0.0001
Sp + Su 45 0.67–1.08
Phosphorous (inorganic) mmol/L 1.2 0.8–2.4 F + M W + Sp 42 0.8–2.3 <0.0001
Su 18 1.2–2.8
Potassium mmol/L −1.8 3.4–5.6 F + M W + Sp + Su 60 3.5–5.5  
Sodium mmol/L 2 130–143 F + M W + Su 33 133–142 0.0003
Sp 27 129–141
Cortisol nmol/L 0.6 29–734 F + M W + Sp + Su 57 25–668  
  1. a: λ = the transformation value from the Box-Cox transformation
  2. b :2.5 and 97.5 percentiles on untransformed data
  3. c:F = female; M = male
  4. d:W = winter (February-March); Sp = spring (April-May); Su = summer (June)
  5. e : p-values are given for significantly different seasons groups