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Table 3 Seasonal changes in serum proteins for subadult brown bears (Ursus arctos) presented as 95 % confidence interval

From: Seasonal variation in haematological and biochemical variables in free-ranging subadult brown bears (Ursus arctos) in Sweden

Variablea Unit λb 2.5 - 97.5 intervalc Sexd Seasone n Range p-valuef
Albumin g/L 1 30.6–54.4 F + M W 15 41.6–55.6 <0.0001
Sp 27 34.0–49.0
Su 18 28.3–47.0
α1-globulin g/L −1.2 2.7–7.4 F + M W + Sp + Su 60 2.6–7.5  
α2-globulin g/L 0 2.9–7.4 F + M W 15 4.5–7.9 <0.0001
Sp + Su 45 2.8–6.6
β-globulin g/L −0.4 5.2–12.5 F W 8 5.4–11.6 <0.0001, 0.0009s
Sp 15 3.3–9.5
Su 10 5.4–11.6
M W 7 6.1–12.2
Sp 12 5.5–9.8
Su 8 6.1–12.2
γ-globulins g/L 0.6 2.4–6.4 F + M W + Sp + Su 60 1.3–2.2  
A:G   0 1.41–3.04 F + M W + Sp 42 1.55–3.04 0.0022
Su 18 1.32–2.59
Total protein g/L 0.8 51–77 F + M W 15 64–79 <0.0001
Sp + Su 45 49–70
  1. aA:G = Albumin:globulin ratio
  2. bλ = the transformation value from the Box-Cox transformation
  3. c2.5 and 97.5 percentiles on untransformed data
  4. dF = female; M = male
  5. eW = winter (February-March); Sp = spring (April-May); Su = summer (June)
  6. f p-values are given for significantly different seasons groups: S = p-value for sex