Skip to main content

Table 2 Seasonal changes in serum enzymes for subadult brown bears (Ursus arctos) presented as 95 % confidence interval

From: Seasonal variation in haematological and biochemical variables in free-ranging subadult brown bears (Ursus arctos) in Sweden

Variablea Unit λb 2.5 - 97.5 intervalc Sexd Seasone n Range p-valuef
AST U/L −1.2 43–317 F + M W 15 38–95 <0.0001
Sp 27 46–114
Su 18 46–437g
ALT U/L −1 11–63 F + M W 15 10–20 <0.0001
Sp 27 12–33
Su 18 11–76g
AP U/L −0.4 13–214 F + M W 15 12–35 <0.0001
Sp 27 33–111
Su 18 27–221g
GGT U/L −0.4 4–98 F + M W 15 4–16 <0.0001
Sp + Su 45 6–61
GD U/L −0.2 2–24 F + M W + Sp 42 2–7 0.009
Su 18 1–33
CK U/L −0.6 56–843 F + M W + Sp + Su 60 61–522  
Amylase U/L −0.4 26–207 F + M W 15 23–86 <0.0001
Sp + Su 45 36–168
Lipase U/L −1.2 12–150 F W + Sp + Su 33 15–197g 0.0018S
M W + Sp + Su 27 11–43
LD U/L 0.6 379–1021 F + M W 15 363–753 <0.0001
Sp 27 465–928
Su 18 565–1054
  1. aAST = aspartate aminotransferase; ALT = alanine transaminase; AP = alkaline phosphatase; GGT = γ-glutamyl transpeptidase; GD = glutamate dehydrogenase; CK = creatinine kinase; LD = lactate dehydrogenase
  2. bλ = the transformation value from the Box-Cox transformation
  3. c2.5 and 97.5 percentiles on untransformed data
  4. dF = female; M = male
  5. eW = winter (February-March); Sp = spring (April-May); Su = summer (June)
  6. f p-values are given for significantly different seasons groups: S = p-value for sex
  7. gNon-estimable 95 % confidence interval, the range is given as lowest-highest measured value